Entrepreneurship


 

“Entrepreneur” is the term which first appeared in the book “Essai sur la Nature du Comerce en General” written by Cantillon in the year 1755. The term generally consigns to a person who acquires products in an identified price and later on sells it at the market which is also not known. This phenomenon brings on steadiness to the system of the market. Basically the term entrepreneurship has been derived from the French term “entrepreneur”. To denote the connotation of the term entrepreneurship, the work of the Verin must be taken into consideration. According to this work, the historical origins of the term have been derived in the late 17th century and early 18th century. After the reconsideration of the various literatures, it has been found that there has been no thorough definition of the term entrepreneurship. This has caused implying dissimilarities between the numerous theorists regarding the concept of the term. By basing upon different approaches of entrepreneurship definition, there have been derived two views by the scholars of entrepreneurship in identifying the proper definition of entrepreneurship (Carayannis, and Stewart, 2013). According to the economic view, the entrepreneurship is identified under the terms of enlistment of capital and more importantly the utilization of prospects which determines the risks concerned with the process of entrepreneurship. Another point of view for identifying the definition of the term Entrepreneurship is the business sociology view. This view centres upon a particular entrepreneurship behaviour like opportunity, detection, assessment, improvement. All these behavioural factors identify the functions as well as the activities which are associated with the set up of a fresh business organization.
Cantillon has connected the phenomenon entrepreneurship with the risk involved in a business. He portrays it to be a process when a person buys a particular thing in a certain amount and sells it in an amount which is unknown to him. This can cause a subsequent risk for the particular entrepreneur. Another German economist Schumpeter has pertained over providing one of the most significant theoretical descriptions over the term, as he states that an entrepreneur is a person who commences as well as coerces the change in market through the process of innovation (Swedberg, 2007). However, (Drucker ,1985) has emancipated the fact where he expressed it as a blend of modernism and opportunity where he expressed the idea where the innovation act who assumes the bequest of the sustaining resources with the capability of creating wealth. Two other theorists Martina and Osberg have identified the term entrepreneurship to be connected with the phenomenon of opportunity. According to them, entrepreneurs have the unique capability to denote as well as utilize new chances , needed assurances and also inspirations to shape it in a frame and moreover to suppose the inbuilt risks. This particular view of the term entrepreneurship has looked into the term as a product compiled by three elements which are-a) the context at which an opportunity is generated; b) set of individual aptitudes to denote as well as utilize the opportunity and c) the ability to show up the opportunity through converting it into results. To fulfil the purpose of the proposed study, the definition of the entrepreneurship can be adopted from the view points of (Martina and Osberg 2007) because they considered in combination of previous view of entrepreneurship which denoted it as a risk and the vital condition to start a new entrepreneurial venture. Moreover this viewpoint also represented innovation to be main focus of entrepreneurship and most importantly the basic conditions of entrepreneurship is fulfilled by the recognition as well as use of opportunities.








 Comparative analysis of Craig’s "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" and Sandra’s "Unit of Measure"

Comparative analysis of Craig’s "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" and Sandra’s
"Unit of Measure"


"A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" is a poem that has employed a vast usage of metaphors to explain a lot of concerns about nature. At the very initial lines, we come across books being referred to as Caxtons and their effects when read as causing the eyes to melt depicting possible tears that may be seen as one reads.
Instances where metaphors are used in "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" include, mechanical birds with wings are pages of a book. He says they are treasured for their markings and this implies that the people who read the books really value them. He also uses the term ‘’model T’ to describe a car. The outside of the car is described by him as the outside world. That one needs a key to turn on the car on and off. This signifies the car’s ignition keys.
"Unit of Measure" on the other hand brings into attention measurements of human aspects in terms of a capybara. The author has depicted, using a lot of similes, the similarities and differences in human behaviour and that of a capybara.
In this text, we are going to look at the poems in details, highlighting similarities and differences between them.
To begin with the similarities in the two poems, we take a look at the styles used. Both poets have used figurative language in that Craig has employed a vast usage of metaphors and Sandra has used similes. Both styles make the individual poems to relay their intended messages in such a nice manner than if ordinary words were simply used. The metaphors send the reader into trying to find out what is actually meant and the simile is effective as it makes one relate to the ideas in the poem.
The poets alike criticize human beings. In the poem "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home", we come across a watch that has been tied to the wrist and human beings cannot wait to see the time pass by, they are naturally very impatient as depicted keeping the watches in the boxes. The poem “A unit of measure” also castigates human behaviour in which they do not want to be associated with lesser beings like animals. The poet goes ahead to bring into our attention instances in which animals are even better off than us. She notes that the capybara can camouflage among fish and be accepted as one of them while we cannot.  Also worth noting is that the capybara has had a set of twenty teeth which it has never shed, but which instead grow bigger, while we human beings do not have the same set we were born with. This explains that there are things that the animals can do than we.
Both poets have also floated an idea about the normal life that an individual leads. Craig has brought forward the aspect of telephone which he describes as a baby. The telephone rings and the receiver picks it up. This ringing and picking up activity is likened to a snoring sleeping baby that is awakened and is soothed to sleep. He also writes about some punishment that human beings undergo. Here the writer is talking about bathing in the bathrooms for adults while children bathe in the open. He also brings in the family setup in which couples sleep together. The sleeping process may be characterised by dreams which is brought forth as reading. Sandra has also brought in issues of comparison which are eminent in human life. People are always comparing one thing to another or on a given scale. She has brought in her description using a capybara.
We also come to realize that the everything can be used as a standard for the other and thus nothing is too inefficient or inappropriate to describe the other. The author of "Unit of Measure" has brought this home and human beings can now find a relation between themselves and animals. The other poem also uses objects to describe actions of human beings. We find human beings who are reading likened to a bird seen perching the hands.
Both poems bring about a comparison between one thing and the other. In the poem "Unit of Measure", the unit is constantly a capybara all through the poem. As we read the poem all the way down, we hardly miss a line with the word capybara. The other of the poem "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" is also using comparison between two things. For his case, he is not mentioning the second implied thing as does the first poet. All the same, she uses the aspect of comparison.
Their exists differences as well in the individual poems. While the "Unit of Measure" talks about human occurrences, it does so using simple terms that one can easily identify with. She uses basic terms commonly applied by the human race. Such words include watermelon, fish, eating and barking among others. The poem "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" however does speaks in tough metaphors that one has to think really deep about the intended message. This is because the persona in the poem is a Martian who is not really conversant with the cultures of mankind here on earth. He therefore uses words that are familiar to him in the outer space and this may leave one baffled.
While both texts talk about humanity and their behaviour, the intended audience varies slightly. The poem "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" is addressed to people with a deeper understanding of the society. This is because it does not speak in plain terms that a common man would easily understand whatever message was intended. Rather, it talks much more of in strong figurative language. "Unit of Measure" however is addressed to all walks of people in the society because of its relatively clear and easy words whose meanings do not require much time to understand.
Sandra’s piece clearly portrays the negative aspects in the life of a human beings in that human beings are always feeling superior to themselves. She has acknowledged that there are things that the capybara can do things that a human being cannot. For the case of a capybara it can sleep under water while human beings cannot because of the scattered position of their ears, eyes and nose.  However, the "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" is a general conveyance of the life of human beings and their cultures.
Summary
Both of these texts reveal aspects about human life in a hidden manner. The poems, to the extent of their diversity, have a myriad of lessons that we need to learn from nature. That human belongs should not look down upon nature in any way because they relate to the same upto a given extent. In fact, nature is better off than us in certain occasions.
With due consideration to the aspect of bathing, which is described as suffering in "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home", the author floats the idea of class in the society. That people are of various classes and that is why we have children and adults operate differently. We also see the colours dying at night and people are in pairs. This depicts couples who sleep together. This is however not the case in "Unit of Measure" because it merely entails a general warning to all mankind to respect and appreciate nature and pays no special regards to one’s age.  It is no wonder the poem is dominated by general terms like everyone and everything
The poets have at least some lessons that they so wish to impart in us as mankind. In my attempt to tackle this, I begin with the poem "Unit of Measure". Here Sandra has indicated much moral lessons to the mankind. She educates people not to look down upon others. . She advices us that each one has their own shortcomings and we need to understand each other. This is seen when she brings in the image of a capybara whose hind limbs are longer and seems to be going downhill every other time. The poem "A Martian Sends a Postcard Home" also depicts some vital lessons as regards mankind. It is of the lesson that every other thing can be used to describe the other. The Martian uses certain terms to describe some aspects on earth that would not be easily understood if one does not open up their thoughts.
Citations


Whether art is a means of inclusion?

The art work is from famous Artist
Edvard Munch’s The Scream may be the most iconic human figure in the history of Western art. Its androgynous, skull-shaped head, elongated hands, wide eyes, flaring nostrils and ovoid mouth have been engrained in our collective cultural consciousness; the swirling blue landscape and especially the fiery orange and yellow sky have engendered numerous theories regarding the scene that is depicted. Conceived as part of Munch’s semi-autobiographical cycle “The Frieze of Life,”The Scream’s composition exists in four forms: the first painting, done in oil, tempera, and pastel on cardboard (1893, National Gallery of Art, Oslo), two pastel examples (1893, Munch Museum, Oslo and 1895, private collection), and a final tempera painting (1910, National Gallery of Art, Oslo). Munch also created a lithographic version in 1895. The various renditions show the artist’s creativity and his interest in experimenting with the possibilities to be obtained across an array of media, while the work’s subject matter fits with Munch’s interest at the time in themes of relationships, life, death, and dread.
For all its notoriety, The Scream is in fact a surprisingly simple work, in which the artist utilized a minimum of forms to achieve maximum expressiveness. It consists of three main areas: the bridge, which extends at a steep angle from the middle distance at the left to fill the foreground; a landscape of shoreline, lake or fjord, and hills; and the sky, which is activated with curving lines in tones of orange, yellow, red, and blue-green. Foreground and background blend into one another, and the lyrical lines of the hills ripple through the sky as well. The human figures are starkly separated from this landscape by the bridge. Its strict linearity provides a contrast with the shapes of the landscape and the sky. The two faceless upright figures in the background belong to the geometric precision of the bridge, while the lines of the foreground figure’s body, hands, and head take up the same curving shapes that dominate the background landscape.

Part 3
If we look into the art work and try to consider our question that whether art gives us its presence in a unique way or not the answer will be positive. As according to formulation theory based on Collingwood’s views the subject of human beings is always in action. In the painting as we can see that understanding can be achieved by describing what happened from an external point of view, but must elicit in the reader’s own mind the thoughts that were taking place in the principal actors involved in historical events. Similarly, the aesthetic procedure is one whereby the artist and spectator jointly come to realize, to come to know, certain mental states. Art is fundamentally expression. If art proper is not the stimulation of preconceived emotion, and not the representation of it either, then what precisely does it mean to say that, nevertheless, art is the expression of emotion? The key is to remember that art is not craft—Collingwood assumes that the reader will accept this, once it is pointed out—and hence the distinction between means and ends does not, strictly speaking, apply. Nor does the distinction between planning and execution.
The following three points emerge from this. 1. To express is to become conscious of an emotion: that is why the distinction between plan and execution cannot be applied. 2. Expressionindividualises; rather than describing the emotion in words whose signification is in principle general, the expression is a feature of the utterance itself (although he does not credit him, this is an evident example where Collingwood follows Croce). Thus we cannot speak of the emotion embodied in a work of art as if it were the content which the art provides the form. 3. The ‘lightening’ of which Collingwood speaks is not that of catharsis, which provides an outlet for the emotion and may take place without its agents being conscious of it at all. It is the achievement of clarity, of focus of mind, which may indeed intensify what is felt rather than attenuate it (though typically it does not).
This last point suggests that there is such a thing as an ‘aesthetic emotion’, but it ‘is not a specific kind of emotion pre-existing to the expression of it’ (117). Instead, it is an ‘emotional colouring which attends the expression of any emotion whatever’ (ibid.) Expression, in this sense, must be sharply distinguished from the betrayal of emotion; one’s tears may be said to ‘express’ one’s sadness, or stamping one’s feet ones anger, but these can occur without the making lucid and intelligible of the emotion that is requisite for expression in Collingwood’s sense. Betrayal can even occur that is wholly unconscious; one can blush without noticing it. The relation between expressive object and emotion is that of embodiment or realization, not of inference.

Thus as I have already said that a thing which ‘exists in a person’s head’ and nowhere else is alternatively called an imaginary thing. The actual making of the tune is therefore alternatively called the making of an imaginary tune. This is a case of creation … Hence the making a tune is an instance of imaginative creation. The same applies to the making of a poem, or a picture, or any other work of art.
Autism-Is it a kind of brain damage in children?
Mental health can be described as the degree of psychological comfort, or nonexistence of psychological disorder. Mental health includes emotional, social and psychological well-being. Health conditions which result into changes in an individual’s behavior and thinking capability are what defines mental illness. It affects a person feeling, thinking, behavior, and interaction with other people. Even though autism spectrum disorder is a not a mental illness, children with this condition are highly vulnerable to develop mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, depression, paranoid personality disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression. Autism as a neurodevelopmental disability has its origins in initial brain developmental stages (Autism-Speaks-Canada, 2017). Conversely, the most apparent symptoms have a tendency of emerging at between 12 and 18 months of infant development. There are cases where toddlers grow normally in the first year of their development until the second year when they begin to lose skills and develop autism. The typical forms of Autism are Asperger syndrome, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Brain damage can be described as the degeneration or destruction of the brain cells. Injury to the brain could be occasioned by accidents or birth defects. Damage to the cerebellum part of the brain in the womb or during the early stages of childhood has a significant impact on the occurrence of autism spectrum disorders in later stages of life. There is a directly proportional relationship between brain damage and autism. Therefore, it can be concluded that autism is a form of damage to the brain cells.
Keywords: Autism, Mental Health, Asperger syndrome, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified

Autism-Is it a kind of brain damage in children?
Introduction
Mental health can be described as the degree of psychological comfort, or nonexistence of psychological disorder. Mental health includes emotional, social and psychological well-being. It affects how we reason, feel, and act. It governs how we accommodate stress, associate with others,    and make choices. Mental health is important as it enables us to realize our full potential, handle the stresses of life, work industriously, and make significant contributions to the societies at every stage of life (WHO, 2009). Health conditions which result into changes in an individual’s behavior and thinking capability are what defines mental illness. It affects a person feeling, thinking, behavior, and interaction with other people. Examples of mental illness include kleptomania, paraphilia, neurosis, delirium, psychogenic amnesia, paranoid personality disorder, somatic symptoms disorder, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorder (Vigo, et al., 2016). Even though autism spectrum disorder is a not a mental illness, children with this condition are highly vulnerable to develop mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, depression, paranoid personality disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression. This paper seeks to address autism spectrum disorder, it various types so as to ascertain whether it’s a kind of brain damage in children.
Autism, also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disability which interferes with an individual’s social skills, speech, nonverbal communication, repetitive behavior and experience with the world around them (Zander, 2007). According to Autism-Speaks-Canada (2017), autism is currently the and most regularly diagnosed and fastest growing neurological disorder in Canada. The prevalence has tremendously increased by 100% in the past 10 years. 1 in 68 children are presently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and it occurs all racial, ethnic and socio-economic groups. Zander, (2004), in his publication, titled, “Introduction to autism”, discussed that autism is a disorder which presents itself in various forms. First, it presents itself as a communication disorder. About 50% of children with this condition never develop speech at all. They experience prolong delay or total impairment in language development which they fail to compensate with nonverbal communication. Secondly, it presents itself as social interaction disorder. Nearly all children suffering from autism do not exhibit any social and emotional reciprocity with their parents or any other person in their social cycle. They don’t understand emotive signs such eye contacts, intonations, gestures and even body movements. Thirdly, as a behavioral disorder. Children suffering from autism, exhibit restricted assortment of behaviour in a repetitive and stereotypic manner. For instance, they may concentrate on pushing toy car, which they do repetitively. Any attempt to deter them from such activities is always met with rage and anger. Finally, such individuals suffering from this disorder exhibit large variations from others. A person may have severe autism as a constituent in multiple impairments composed of a mild or extreme learning disability, and epilepsy, and become exceedingly disabled, or have a less significant degree of autism and a high level of ability. The variations in the degree of severity of the behavioral expressions for autism are huge and also reliant on the person’s personality, age and level of development (Zander, 2007)
Autism as a neurodevelopmental disability has its origins in initial brain developmental stages (Autism-Speaks-Canada, 2017). Conversely, the most apparent symptoms have a tendency of emerging at between 12 and 18 months of infant development. There are cases where toddlers grow normally in the first year of their development until the second year when they begin to lose skills and develop autism. The typical forms of Autism are Asperger syndrome, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).
Types of Autism
1.      Asperger syndrome
Asperger’s Syndrome is not a disease or a health problem, but it is lifelong state categorized by significant impairment in nonverbal communication, social interactions and repetitive behavior (Segar, 2007). Asperger syndrome disorder is named after Hans Asperger, a Viennese pediatrician who, first defined a set of behavior patterns ostensibly in some of his patient in 1944, majorly boys. Asperger observed that even though these boys had standard intelligence and linguistic development, they had brutally compromised social skills, poor coordination and couldn't converse well with others. Scholars and mental health specialists are still examining the actual causes of Asperger syndrome. However, brain deformities are believed to be one possible cause of Asperger syndrome, since structural and functional differences have been seen in damaged brains through radical brain imaging (Segar, 2007).
The good news is that this syndrome cannot prevent one from becoming successful and fruitful in the society. Most victims of Asperger’s Syndrome display punctuality, trustworthy and responsibility, and commitment to duty with special skills in their areas of specialization. They also have a good memory and keen concentration in tasks that others may look at as being boring (Segar, 2007). Nonetheless, they have very humble social, communication, and emotional skills. They have little empathy compounded with poor relationships with others (Segar, 2007). Their conversation is mostly one-sided with an intense absorption interest. Their movements can also be impaired in some cases. They are rigid thinkers with difficulty to master easy concepts. Because Asperger syndrome varies widely from person to person, making a diagnosis can be difficult. It is often detected later in infants than autism and sometimes may not be recognized until adulthood (Segar, 2007). Diagnosis is important because it helps victims to comprehend why they may face certain complications and what they can do about them. It also enables them to access necessary services and support. Diagnosis can be done by the multi-disciplinary investigative team, comprising a psychologist, speech and dialectal counselor, pediatrician, and psychiatrist (Segar, 2007). Some of the proposed solutions to this condition are parental teaching, specified learning mediations, social abilities training, language psychotherapy, and sensory assimilation training (Caulfield, 2011).
2.      Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified
Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, abbreviated as PDD-NOS, was one of the several subtypes of autism that was folded into Autism Spectrum Disorder (Rondeau et al., 2010).  The cause of Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, is not clearly known though scientists believe that hereditary factors could play a role. The early symptoms of PDD-NOS that can be identified at infancy comprise delays in the development of communication and socialization skills. These may comprise delays in using language, difficulty associating to people, unfamiliar play with toys, and difficulty with variations in routine. Pervasive Development Disorder involves-Not Otherwise Specified is characterized by interruptions in the development of elementary childhood skills such as the ability to communicate, the ability to socialize, and clearly put into use the power of imagination. Children on with this condition have difficulties with social communication and interactions (Rondeau et al., 2010). They also tend to avoid eye contact, inept to precisely express themselves linguistically, have a penetrating or flat voice, cannot contain a conversation, exhibit distress adjusting emotions, and perform repetitive behaviors like hand-flapping, shaking, jumping. They also display confusion, in their way of thinking and, have an acute difficulty in understanding the environment around them, but are too social enough to be considered autistic. In diagnosis, clinicians examine the child and make inquiries from the parents about the child’s actions (Rondeau et al., 2010). There is no proven laboratory examination for Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. The best mitigation is to establish early enough if a child is in the range of infection. Early detection is significant in the acquisition of resources to help the child reach full potential. Even though there are medications to help children displaying Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified symptoms, medication is more effective when combined with therapy that improves socialization and other life skills. Common therapies such as visual and environmental support are significant (Rondeau et al., 2010).
3.      Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a developmental disorder, also known as dementia infantilis, Heller's syndrome, and disintegrative psychosis. Children suffering from this condition show normal social and linguistic development in the first two years of normal development, which is then followed by loss of, social skills, motor skills, and language. Childhood disintegrative disorder was first described by Thomas Heller, an Austrian educator in the year 1908.  The cause of childhood disintegrative disorder is indefinite. However, research outcomes propose, that it may be triggered in the neurobiology of the brain. Most of the children diagnosed with this condition have an abnormal electroencephalogram. Electroencephalogram determines the electrical activity in the brain generated by nerve transmission. CDD is also linked with seizures, another symptom that the neurobiology of the brain may be entangled. CDD is sporadically related to such diagnosed medical disorders of the brain as Schilder's disease and leukodystrophy however, research on this condition is hindered by the infrequency of this disorder (Charan, 2012).
At the initial stages of their lives, children with this unusual disorder begin their physical and mental development in a normal pattern. However, at approximately between 2 and 10 years of age, they begin to lose many of the skills they had established.  Additionally, to the loss of social as well as communication skills, is more often than not compounded by subsequent impairment of other functions, such impaired bowel and bladder control system. To be diagnosed with CDD, a child must show loss in at least two of the following areas, expressive language skills, receptive language skills, social skills, play with peers, motor skills, and bowel or bladder control. Treatment emphasize is on timely and passionate educational interventions. Most treatment is and extremely structured. Enlightening the parents so that they can support the child’s treatments at home is usually part of the overall treatment plan. Social skills development, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and sensory integration therapy may all be used. Other proposed treatment measures disorder include environmental therapy, behavioral therapy and medication with antipsychotic drugs (Charan, 2012).
4.      Rett's syndrome
This is a hereditary neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the way the brain grows, triggering a progressive incapability to use muscles of an eye, body movements, and speech. Most infants with Rett syndrome appear to develop normally at first, but after approximately 6 months of growth, they lose abilities they had learned until that time such as, walk, communicate or the ability to crawl. Infants with this condition have difficulties with the use of muscles that regulate movement, communication, and coordination. It can also cause seizures and logical incapacity (Bathla et al., 2010).
Rett’s syndrome is associated with the gray matter of the brain. This disorder has been interrelated to a defect on the X chromosome, meaning it is virtually a condition which affects female. Children with this very unusual syndrome display the signs linked to Pervasive Development Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. Additionally, they suffer problems with physical development. They have poorly developed skills such as walking and use of their hands. Victims of Rett’s syndrome are characterized by gastrointestinal complications and approximately 80% of them experience seizures. Common symptoms of Retts syndrome include (Bathla et al., 2010).
·         Slowed growth. Microcephaly is the first sign that a child has Rett’s syndrome. Hindered growth in other parts of the body gets obvious as the child grows.
·         Loss of normal movement and coordination. Muscles become weak with abnormal movement.
·         Loss of communication abilities. Loss of the ability to speak, to make eye contact and to communicate.
·         Abnormal hand movements. Children with Rett syndrome typically purposeless hand movements that may differ for each person.
·         Infants with this condition, have a characteristic unusual eye movements, such as intense blinking, and staring.
·         Children with Rett syndrome become increasingly agitated and irritable as they get older.
·          Loss of skills can be accompanied by a loss of intellectual functioning.
·          Most people who have Rett syndrome experience seizures at some time during their lives.
·         Scoliosis is common with Rett syndrome. It typically begins between 8 and 11 years of age and increases with age. Surgery may be required if the curvature is severe.
·         Irregular heartbeat which can result in sudden death.
·         Health problems may have an increased risk of pain.
Currently there is no known cure for Rett’s Syndrome, however, sufficient therapies in speech, occupational, good nutrition, behavioral, supportive services are significant in rehabilitating this condition (Bathla et al., 2010).
5.      Autistic disorder
Autistic disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that appears in the first three years of a child growth. A child with autism disorder displays slight concern in others and lack of societal consciousness. The cause of autism is not well-known. Scientists propose that it is a hereditary condition (Owen, et al., 2009). Researchers in autism have established a variation of irregularities in the brain structure and chemicals components, nonetheless, there have been no reliable outcomes. Victims of this condition don’t interact well with others,  tend to evade making eye contact, fails to develop friends or interact with other children, do not communicate well with others, demonstrates repetitive behaviors and are preoccupied with lights, moving objects. Specified behavioral and educational courses are planned to treat autism. Behavioral therapy is used to teach social skills, motor skills and cognitive skills (Owen et al., 2009). Distinctive education series that are extremely structured focus on increasing social skills, speech, language, and self-care and job skills. Medication is similarly supportive in treating some indications of autism in some kids (Owen et al., 2009).
Conclusion

Brain damage can be described as the destruction of the brain cells. Injury to the brain could be occasioned by accidents or birth defects. According to a study done by (Wang et al., 2014) damage to the cerebellum part of the brain in the womb or during the early stages of childhood, has a significant impact on the occurrence of autism later stages of life. Therefore, it can be concluded that autism is a form of damage to the brain cells. There is need for more studies on causes symptom and treatments for the typical forms of Autism are Asperger syndrome, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. 


Work Life Balance









Work Life Balance (WLB) &
                  Time-use Analysis

 According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary 2017, work can be defined as-



§  An activity in which one exerts strength or faculties to do or perform something;
§  A sustained physical or mental effort to overcome obstacles and achieve an objective or result;
§  The labor, task, or duty that is one's accustomed means of livelihood
§  A specific task, duty, function, or assignment often being a part or phase of some larger activity;

If we try to summarize all these definitions of work, it may be defined as the task which is essential for living. If some one is not working, he or she might be sick or have a disability or are simply not alive. Work can be physical or mental. Work is anything you do that is not leisure. Work can be paid or unpaid labor. The opportunity to earn a living for yourself/family. We put our professional abilities or opinions to use to benefit a firm/business’s daily operations or profitability. Work also gives you the ability to enjoy the finer things in life (hobbies, travel and/or interests).

The work can be defined into two categories, one being domestic work such as household chores, cleaning, gardening and so on for one’s own pleasure. The other definition of work to me is society’s view of working for a wage. The idea of employment and having citizens work not only from pleasure but for an incentive. For instance, the work I do at home like cleaning the house or gardening outside in the backyard is for my own pleasure, compared to the work I do for the public that may be for labour or community service.
Therefore, work is significant in life and makes you active. Now. If we consider the evolution of working time and how it evolved during the course of time, we should relate the analogy of work from the hunter gatherers to the workers of the Industrial Revolution.
Hunter-gatherer societies worked very few hours compared to modern industrial and agrarian societies (i.e. 6-8 hours of work per week compared to 40+ now).
Methodology
            The current paper will rely on the qualitative work of gathering material from the sources obtained from the journal articles, books, and articles from magazines. The work-leisure dichotomy was invented in the mid-1800s. Paul Krassneer remarked that anthropologists use a definition of happiness that is to have as little separation as possible "between your work and your play". The expression "work–life balance" was first used in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s to describe the balance between an individual's work and personal life. In the United States, this phrase was first used in 1986.
Most recently, there has been a shift in the workplace as a result of advances in technology.  Employees have many methods, such as emails, computers, and cell phones, which enable them to accomplish their work beyond the physical boundaries of their office. Researchers have found that employees who consider their work roles to be an important component of their identities will be more likely to apply these communication technologies to work while in their non-work domain.
Many authors believe that parents being affected by work-life conflict will either reduce the number of hour’s one works where other authors suggest that a parent may run away from family life or work more hours at a workplace. This implies that each individual views work-life conflict differently.

What is Work Life Balance?
Work-life balance is about effectively managing the juggling act between paid work and the other activities that are important to people. It's not about saying that work is wrong or bad, but that work shouldn't completely crowd out the other things that matter to people like time with family, participation in community activities, voluntary work, personal development, leisure and recreation.
The 'right' balance is a very personal thing and will change for each person at different times of his or her lives. For some people the issue is being able to get into work or find more work rather than having too much work. There is no 'one size fits all' solution.
A balanced life is one where we spread our energy and effort - emotional, intellectual, imaginative, spiritual and physical – between key areas of importance. The neglect of one or more areas, or anchor points, may threaten the vitality of the whole.
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What is the Main Issue?
 Work-life balance is increasingly an issue for any country. Jobs, the workplace and the workforce are changing as:
Ø  More women and sole parents go into work.
Ø  More people juggle more than one job.
Ø  The workforce ages and is increasingly diverse.
Ø  Businesses continue to compete globally to hire skilled workers.
Ø  Technology changes the way we work - e.g. cell phones and PCs blur the distinction between work and personal time.

For any country, the two biggest work-life balance problems are:
ü  People with not enough work or income
ü  People who have too much work: the low paid who need to work long hours to earn enough and the higher paid who may feel trapped into working more hours than they want to.

Through the consultation, employers told that they wanted to address work-life balance issues in their workplaces, and that they wanted practical tools to implement work-life balance initiatives. Workers, families, and individuals told us that the key issues for them in achieving work-life balance concerned their caring responsibilities, workplace practices and cultures, and the need to earn sufficient income.

https://hbr.org/resources/images/article_assets/hbr/1403/R1403C_B_LG.gif

Drivers for change
Work-life balance has become increasingly important for a number of social and economic reasons that are making:
Ø  organizations think about how they work
Ø  Government think about how people balance paid and unpaid work and care
Ø  Individuals think about the role work has and will have at different stages of their lives.
Broadly, this shift is influenced by changes to markets, ways of working, the labour market and expectations of work. In the public sector, these drivers mean:
Ø  Pressures to increase efficiencies while at the same time responding to the demands of service users, creating more flexible and responsive public services.
Ø  That there is a need to understand better and respond to customer requirements in a population that is becoming older and more ethnically diverse. Therefore, people who possess these skills and relationships are crucial to helping organizations understand new customer segments, promote creativity and cope with increasingly complex business models.

Effects of WLB
The case for work-life balance tends to be made on two counts.
v  First, that work-life balance improves individuals’ health, wellbeing and job satisfaction.
v  Second, that business can benefit from work-life balance because these policies:
Ø  improve productivity and worker commitment
Ø  reduce sickness absence
Ø  increase retention rates for talented workers and reduce replacement costs
Ø  allow organizations to recruit from a wider pool of talent
Ø  Enable organizations to offer services beyond usual business hours by employing workers on different shifts that fit in with caring responsibilities.

Characteristics

Ø  Work Life Balance Business Benefits.
Ø  Not constant, comes and goes with life changes
Ø  It takes WORK
Ø  The process of seeking balance can be deeply rewarding

Work Life Balance benefits as
Ø  Attracts new employees
Ø  Helps to retain staff
Ø  Builds diversity in skills and personnel
Ø  Improves morale
Ø  Reduces sickness and absenteeism
Ø  Enhances working relationships between colleagues
Ø  Encourages employees to show more initiative and teamwork
Ø  Increases levels of production and satisfaction
Ø  Decreases stress and burnout



Some reasons for WLB
A review of public holidays and paid holidays across a sample of countries, including Australia, China, France, Germany, Singapore, the US and the UK shows that India is actually quite comparable in terms of the number of days of vacation and holidays provided by law and general practice. It would, therefore, be fair to assume that the intent of law as well as the espoused values of organizations seems to be in favor of providing a fair amount of leisure and balance. Whether it has translated into reality is another matter.
Ø  Gender Concerns
Ø  Young Generation
Ø  Identity Through Work

 Gender concerns

Similar discrimination is experienced by men who take time off or reduce working hours for taking care of the family.
For many employees today—both male and female—their lives are becoming more consumed with a host of family and other personal responsibilities and interests. Therefore, in an effort to retain employees, it is increasingly important for organizations to recognize this balance.

Young generation

Per Kathleen Gerson, Sociologist, young people "are searching for new ways to define care that do not force them to choose between spending time with their children and earning an income" and " are looking for definition of personal identity that do not pit their own development against creating committed ties to others readily. Young adults believe that parents should get involved and support the children both economically and emotionally, as well as share labor equally. Young people do not believe work-life balance is possible and think it is dangerous to build a life dependent on another when relationships are unpredictable. They are looking for partners to share the house work and family work together. Men and women believe that women should have jobs before considering marriage, for better life and to be happy in marriage. Young people do not think their mother’s generations were unhappy. They also do not think they were powerless because they were economically dependent.

Sometimes these identities align and sometimes they do not. When identities are in conflict, the sense of a healthy work-life balance may be affected. Organization members must perform identity work so that they align themselves with the area in which they are performing to avoid conflict and any stress.



A study of the Employment Standards in Ontario
These are the general rules in Ontario about hours of work and overtime pay. There are exceptions and special rules for some employees under the Employment Standards Act, 2000 (ESA). To see if your occupation is subject to special rules or exemptions see the Special Rule Tool.
Your employer cannot intimidate you, fire you, suspend you, reduce your pay, punish you in any way or threaten any of these actions for exercising your ESA rights.

Hours of work
The maximum daily and weekly limits on hours of work are:
§  8 hours a day (or the number of hours in your regular work day, if it is more than 8).
§  48 hours a week.

Rest periods and eating periods

§  Your employer must give you at least:
§  11 consecutive hours off work each day (a “day” is a 24-hour period – it does not have to be a calendar day);
§  8 hours off work between shifts (unless the total time worked on the shifts is 13 hours or less, or you and your employer have otherwise agreed in writing); and
§  24 consecutive hours off work each work week (or 48 consecutive hours off every two work weeks).
§  You must also get a 30-minute eating period after no more than five hours of work. You can agree with your employer to split this eating period into two shorter breaks.

Overtime pay
For every hour you work over 44 hours a week, your employer must pay you at least 1½ times your regular rate of pay (“time and a half”).
§  Excess hours of work and overtime averaging.
§  You do not have to but if you choose to, you can agree with your employer in writing to.
§  Work more than 8 hours a day (or the number of hours in your regular work day, if it is more than 8).
§  Average the hours you work over periods of two or more weeks to calculate overtime pay.
§  You can cancel an agreement to work excess daily or weekly hours by giving your employer two weeks’ written notice. Your employer can also cancel an agreement by giving you reasonable notice.
§  Overtime averaging agreements must have an expiry date and cannot be cancelled unless both you and your employer agree.
§  Generally, if you are represented by a union your union would make agreements with your employer on your behalf.

Now the question is, do you think a shorter work week is good for workers and businesses?
A top public health doctor recently said that long working hours was a big cause of mental ill health, and a big 2015 study linked long working hours with an increased risk of stroke and heart disease.
Less time at work would mean more time to care for children and family, be a school governor, look in on elderly neighbors, or organize a game of football. It would mean more time to create the community spider web of connections and favors and reciprocation that keeps the world going round.

Annotated Bibliography
Binnewies, C. (2016). Current perspectives on work–life balance: Moving toward a resource-oriented framework. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 224(1), 1-2. 

            The current source is useful in time analysis project because it highlights the identity through work processes. According to Binnewies (2016) by working in an organization, employees identify, to some extent, with the organization, as part of a collective group. Organizational values, norms and interests become incorporated in the self-concept as employees increase their identify with the organization. However, employees also identify with their outside roles, or their "true self". Examples of these might be parental/caretaker roles, identifications with certain groups, religious affiliations, align with certain values and morals, mass media etc. Most employees identify with not only the organization, but also other facets of their life (family, children, religion).


           




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