1.      Describe the id, ego, and superego and tell how they work together according to Freudian theory  
            The id, ego and superego are systems that are considered as one of the most important divisions of the human psyche and can be used to describe and rationalize the human behavior. The id, ego and superego are systems and they are developed at different ages to help us assimilate in the society.  The id involves the primitive urges that are instinctual and are not moderated by any conscious thinking. The super ego is related with the moral principles that are entrenched in society and are learned from the experience and observation. The ego balances between these to help in rational decision making that serve self-interest within the bounds of moral principles established in society. According to the Freudian theory, the superego and id are always struggling for balance and any decision to indulge the id while ignoring the standard of ideal behavior set by superego would be punished by guilt or when the set moral standards are achieved, can be rewarded by pride. Thus, the internal connection between these three systems and their influence on the decision making has been used by the Freudian theory to explain the different distinctions of human behavior and justify the decision and the feeling of guilt or pride that often follow a decision.
  1. What are values, and why should marketers care?
            The customers always have some factors that affect their decision-making in their purchasing behavior. The customer always measures any product or service against the possible benefits gained from the product or service before making the decision to avail the service or the product. There are different factors which the customer translates into benefits with the price of the service or product. The factors that the customer uses to measure the comparative benefit of a product or service are values. These values are numerous like the ease of use, quality of the product or the comparative low price or greater usage facilities or useful features. All of the factors that influence the purchasing decision of the customer are values (Shimada, 2014).

The marketers need to understand the customer values for the scale the customers are going to use to measure the cost to benefit of the product or service is valuable tool to design and present the product in such a way that meets the customer expectations. Therefore, by understanding the customer values the marketer can influence the purchasing decision making process of the customer and achieve business objectives. Thus, the understanding the value is essential for the business success.
  1. A government agency wants to encourage the use of designated drivers by people who have been drinking. What advice could you give the organization about constructing persuasive communications? Discuss some factors that might be important, including the structure of the communications, where they should appear, and who should deliver them. Should fear appeals be used? If so, how?
The first advice that can be given to the organization is to define the term ‘designated driver’ clearly as many believe the designated driver needs to be not inebriate completely. This reduces the risk but does not ensure safety. The process of discussion that leads to the election of a designated driver from a group of youth also stipulated be developed so that level of impairment is taken into consideration and should be based on turns so they all take responsibility for their safety. The structure of the communication should be interesting describing with the help of visual examples how the drunk driving can lead to accidents and such. The place for the presentation of the communication should be in the places, which the youth frequent, and the same can be said about the material they read usually or the social media sites that are popular (Terer & Brown, 2014). In this way, the approach is bound to reach the highest population of drunk drivers. Fear appeal should be used as the innocents are often victims of drunk driving so the use of the visual exhibits representing drunk driving accidents and fear of penalization should be used to make the people understand the severe consequences of their actions.

Mintzberg’s functions of management/ Subject: Business
In my personal life, I have seen some managers at work as casual observer and Mintzberg’s definition of the roles of the managers was present in their overall duties, which I now realise from my recollection of their jobs. One such manager whom I observed was director general of foreign economic relations office in ministry of trade in Iraq and his role was to use the financial information regarding trade into decisions that would benefit the overall economy. His duties included all the role of managers as defined by the Mintzberg’s functions of management, yet he failed to perform them better. For instance, the information-processing role is one of the first duties of the director general of foreign trade relations. One of the traits that I did not like were related with his way of work. I observed that he had no dedication to the analysis of financial information operational cost ledger to decide on the foreign economic relations that is considered as one of the crucial benefits of the country of Iraq. Therefore, the role of the manager in using the operational information on the other countries and developing the possible benefits and deficits for the treaties and trade agreements did not seem to be important to him.
The decision-making role of the manager depends on his future planning of the economic relations in trade and information processing regarding the financial possibilities on benefit and the risks that are mostly observed in any new proposal for foreign investment or trade agreements. However, I observed that manager did not take stock of the situation and therefore was not able to make possible analysis of the information to guide the decision of the ministry regarding any economic relations.

In addition to this his ability to work with various sources of information collection and analysis did not extract properly due to which he was unable to put together the big picture of testament to his interpersonal skills that failed him to succeed in the role. 

Theory of Beauty/ Subject: ARTS


A movement which focuses, on the visual sight of the moment, rather than an accurate depiction, relating to the effectiveness of the sensory impression, through the musical composition to create scuttling of moods over an impression. This has taken place during the nineteenth century, which has originated within the Paris, a group of artists who was involved with a very small fragile open composition depending on the human perception which can experience by various visual angles (Kovats, 2015).
It involves enormous techniques, though they have learnt from the work of Jean-Baptist Corot, who had taken the concept of nature with that style they have come out with the impressionism by which many had taken the inspiration out of it as the various young artist. Some techniques will be discussed as: colours applied in such a way that it appears more splashing way. True impressionist generally avoids using back colour in paintings, their paintings are highly opaque, and the natural light colour is more emphasized. New technology has come up, previously they used to grind the animal bladders with the linseed oil to make the dry pigments  while painting but now many colours have come up and are available commercially  which play a significant role while painting, example Edgar Degas have been both photographer and the Japanese prints.

General Psychology Quiz Live Tutoring Help / Educosoft Subj: Psychology
Consumer psychologists are more likely to be concerned with
how our mental attitude affects our physical well being
whether or not the smell of freshly baked cookies in a supermarket makes us more likely to buy cookies.
whether watching violence on TV makes us more aggressive.
the effects of income on college grades

A method of study in which the researcher often never actually sees the subject, but rather his/her responses to a series of questions, is the _____ method.
natural observation
case study
A sample in which every member of the population being studied has an equal chance of being included is called a(n) _____ sample.

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Modernism ( Subject : ARTS )

         Modernism can be defined as a philosophical movement that emerged from huge transformations in the western society which took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries specifically after World War 1 (Gold 74). This was primarily a movement in which the flourishing arts in the early twentieth century broke the traditions of the past through unique innovations. The era was characterised by rapid industrialisation, substantial social change and advancements in science & technology (Gold 37).  The development of new ideas in psychology, political theory and philosophy stimulated the need for new modes of expression. This led to a rise of interests in new types of paints with the idea to create abstraction and fantasies rather than focusing on what was real (Levenson 21). The movements of modernism such as Cubism in Arts, Symbolism in poetry and Atonality in music explored different spheres of new economic, political and social aspects of the new evolving industrialized world (Kramer 47).
Modernism            In other words, Modernism depicts departure from tradition to undertake the practice of innovative forms of expression that differentiates many styles in the arts and literature of the nineteenth and the twentieth century (Kramer 38). The modern art requires their audience to carefully observe the intentions and the environment of the artist before making any judgments about his work. Paul Cézanne is known as the ‘Father of Modernism’ (Levenson 41).            World War 1 is often considered as the starting event of Modernism (Adams 82). The mechanised mass slaughter and devastation of the western civilisation during the Great War accelerated and strengthened the thinking of modernism (Gold 39). The key characteristic that acted as a catalyst for Modernism is nihilism, the rejection of the traditional moral principles as the only way to attain social progress. This led the artists to believe that they were a part of a revolution not only to invent the new expression of a modern world but also question the already existing ideas of art. The most influential movements of modern art are illustrated well through the chosen piece of art.
Violence Lucide            Violence Lucide (1963) is an example of modernism in art. It was painted by Claude Tousignant in September 1963. It is a unique piece of art for Claude Tousignant that he even painted a facsimile in 1994 when he thought that he lost the painting. Claude Tousignant is a popular and an influential artist in the field of abstract modernism since the latter part of 20th century. He was born in 1932 in Montreal Quebec. He completed academic degree in the visual arts from Montreal School of Fine Arts. Two distinct methods of abstraction which includes semi-abstraction and pure abstraction. He used the techniques of semi-abstraction which is the part of modern art. It is an art form in which the artist works on specific visual portions to draw a poetic reconstruction of the subject. While pure abstraction art is based on individual usage of visual elements (Couchot 75). The foundations of the modern abstract art are found in cubism. Moreover, other significant abstract styles that emerged in the 20th century are Orphism, Constructivism, Rayonism, Tachisme and Abstract Expressionism.Tousignant returned to his hometown in 1953 after travelling to Paris and the United States. He tried to explore abstraction deeply rather than following Automatism. During that period, a group of plasticists was formed which included Belzile, Jérôme, Jauran and Toupin. Mondrean highly influenced not only this group but also Tousignant. Although he opposed the automated movement, he did not become a part of the first group of Plasticians, artists who rejected the geometrical elements and the faded colours (Purvis 32). The pictorial space of Pollock and Newman created a huge impact on Tousignant. His piece of art is more identical to the second wave of Plastic painters which includes Juneau and Molinari. This group of artists gave more importance to the colour in frontal space. Tousignant implemented these principles in his different pieces of art such as Les taches in 1955, where he used oil on the canvas to depict bright colours on a white background (Purvis 29). This was the first series of works which introduced Tousignant to the world through a display at the Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art (Couchot 31). Moreover, his abstract work Le lieu de l'infini in 1956 displays the relation between geometrical structures and colours which in turn creates a confusion optical sensation.             Claude Tousignant’s art was exhibited not only in Canada but also across the world.  He was a member of Montreal Association of Non-Figurative Artists and has represented Canada in 8th Bienalle of São Paulo in 1965.  In 1965, Claude Tousignant created a unique and impressive piece of art known as Violence Lucide. The painting evolved by the integration of circle into rectangular. This unique art was exhibited in 1965 at Galerie du Siecle, owned by an affluent Montreal-based, Mr. Aubert Brillant who was popular for purchasing modern art from the struggling artists. One year later, this painting along with others was part of an exhibition at Washington Square Galleries in New York.  The painting also represents impressionism which is indeed a simple way to express work of painters in a unique way. The history of modernism in art began with impressionism. At the end of the nineteenth century, a colorful style of painting evolved in France which was named as impressionism. It was based on the in-depth analysis of the impact of colors and light. The Impressionists preferred to work outdoors, and they focused on bold colors rather than details of their subject.  This is evident from the chosen work as well in which Claude painted the picture with the bold color and making it vibrant and bright.
 Fauvism            A fashionable style of painting developed by Henri Matisse in France during the early 20th century was called Fauvism (Rewald 26). It was a joyful, dramatic and highly influential style of painting. The most significant contribution of Fauvism to modern art was to exhibit the independent power of colour. The two most important characteristics of the Fauvist paintings was simplified painting and highly exaggerated colours (Rewald 17).Expressionism             In simple terms, expressionism was a modern art form of Fauvism. This style was highly influenced by emotional as well as a spiritual vision of the world. The painters of this movement were divided into two groups: Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter.            The members of Die Brücke’s community were young artists in Dresden whose main objective was to revolutionise the old traditions of German art. On the other hand, Der Blaue Reiter was another group of painters whose publications were completely influenced by primitive art.Abstract Art           Cubism            This style was created by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in 1907. The roots of Cubism is found in African tribal art (Čuljak et al. 51). Cubists believed in depicting different aspects of the subject at one time. This style of art is divided into two phases: Analytical Cubism and Synthetic Cubism. It created a huge impact on other styles of modern art (Čuljak et al. 43).Futurism            The revolutionary movement of modern art in Italy is called Futurism. It was invented in 1909 by Filippo Tommas Marinetti. The futurists were highly influenced by the expression of ideas of cubists but with a little twist. The paintings of the futurists are relatively more dynamic than cubists.            The modern art in Canada has experienced an exceptional expansion of visual arts post second world war. During that period, it also witnessed a surge in some professional artists, a creation of new galleries & exhibitions and also an introduction of magazines on modern art. Apart from the influence of North European modernism had on Canadian art, huge efforts made by artists resulted in a breakthrough to modern art which approached Montreal in 1940.Conclusion            The study concludes the history of art has been changed with the evolution from traditional technique to modernized technique. After analyzing the study, some points can be highlighted in this section. It helps to overview the entire discussion which is manifested in the above sections. Violence Lucid is an abstract piece of art by Canadian artist, Claude Tousignant. It is a clear example of modern art. The aim of this art is not to display an exact depiction of visual reality rather it is using different shapes, forms and colours to show its real impact. No human shapes can be identified in the Tousignant's work. The intention of his work was completely abstract paintings. He has explored different geometric elements and vibrant colours. He always wanted his work to be observed as objects or independent commodities with no clear meaning attached to it. Meanwhile, art took a dramatic transformation when modernism was introduced to the world. Different forms of art were developed with the rise and fall of artists and adoption of innovative and distinct styles. Modernism has completely changed the perspective of humanity. Multiple styles of art were created since no two people can think alike. This has triggered great amount of experimentation and varied exploration by artists. 
Article Review: Media multi-taskers
In the article “Media multi-taskers are ‘deluded’,” by Annie Murphy Paul the author is of the view that using latest communication technology tools such as Facebook, Twitter and instant messaging apps students are unable to concentrate on their studies and cannot go for at least 15 minutes without “engaging with their devices”. The author highlights a recent conducted by Rosen according to which the students cannot learn properly the material taught in the class if they are engaged in media multitasking activities. Annie also proposes that the engagement of multimedia tasking starts in the early age of 8 which has no doubt become a serious concern to worry about. Annie argues that even though a person can do two tasks together but due to this he or she might be deluded and negative outcomes start to emerge. The engagement of multitasking causes mental fatigue to the students’ due to which they start doing mistakes in their work. For instance, the students lose their cognitive ability and start to pay less attention to their tasks. The main reason for these negative outcomes is due to the distraction that is caused by these multimedia tasks. Another study conducted by the National Academy of Sciences proposes that students who were engaged in the multitasking adept less to the work as compared to the group of students who did not engage in the multimedia tasks. Thus, the article by Murphy shows in depth how the multimedia tasks have made the individuals especially the students to pay less attention to their studies and more attention to their instant messaging and other activities. The author concludes with an important message that our young generation is not being raised the way the young was raised in the past and such types of issues should be considered as a serious matter of concern. 

Exam English Questions ( Subject: ENGLISH )

It has been argued by many critics that Larsen’s novel Passing focuses on the question of desire of same sex and targets the question of race, gender and ethnicity. It might be proposed that Larsen’s Passing has destabilized the traditional concepts of racial, ethnic and gender veracity which is fundamentally executed through the accepted definition of identity.  Therefore, based on this notion I do not agree with Kahan’s views about the problems associated with the textual ambiguities as Larsen has explored the themes effectively and in an eloquent way that do not cross the racial divides and remain unutterable. However, at the same time this also points out toward the fact that all characters are masked in such a way that do not make them socially acceptable in a society. For instance, Clare has weaved through both of her worlds in order to satisfy her desires, but leads toward a tragic end.  Similarly, the character of Irene is depicted as an opposite who needs much security in life. Yet even though Claire has lived recklessly she has found some degree of happiness in the world that remains unachievable for Irene. If we look back into the 1920s it becomes quite evident that public revelations around the concepts of sexuality and race were not considered as an accepted norm. As a result, the profound and deep desires tended to rose due to the social restrictions. As when Larsen writes “We shy away from it with an odd kind of revulsion, but we protect it” (Larsen 67). Thus the women in the novel Passing seem to be detached from their identities and isolate from their gender and race, even though they had tried hard in sustaining their identities which have been assigned to them.

                                              Question 2

The current paper will show a deep comparison of mother nature and the city life through different symbols, themes and allegories presented in both the poems. The two poems chosen are  “Thirteen ways of looking at a blackbird Blackbirds” by Wallace Stevens and “ In a station of a metro” by  Ezra Pound. American poets in the first half of 20th century were inspired by imagist style of writing poems and depicted the fragility of life in different ways. The poem Thirteen ways of looking at a blackbird Blackbirds by Wallace Stevens depict the universal symbol of the poem which might be considered as one of the common creatures chosen in carrying a wide collection of different meanings. At the basic levels the poet can be considered as poet of nature as he perceives his notions and elaborate them into the elements of poetic verses through his observation of nature and different ways of looking objects. Wallace through the symbol of black bird has represented the beauty and mystery of life and death which are considered as the key elements of mother nature. At the same time once the audience understands the symbols of nature presented in the nature they also become aware of nature's intrinsic uncertainties and doubts.
            As compared to Wallace, Ezra on the other hand has shown the busy life of a city through the portrayal of life in a metro. He has drawn a picture of a busy crowd in the metro station of Paris and compare the people with “ghosts”. He considers the busy crowd as ghost because those people just come and go and don’t know each other. This draws some interesting facts as how the people in the urban life don’t know much about each other and do not want to mingle with each other as compared to nature, where bird, trees and beautiful shores meet together at all ends. 



In this particular paper, the overall assessment concerning the ethical corporate culture has been determined in order identify the primary values of an organization as well as ethical rules in accordance to which the employees are bounded and needed to be followed The justification of ethical corporate culture and what does it has meant for pertaining the business ethically has been discussed in this particular research paper. Overall description of the ethics that have been needed in the organization has been beautifully encapsulated in this paper. Moreover, the meaning of ethical culture and its overall significance regarding the behaviour of the employees has also been described in this particular paper. Cumulating these aspects, probable ideas regarding the corporate culture has also been determined in this respective paper.

Justification of Ethical Corporate Culture

An ethical corporate culture has always consisted with the leaders as well as employees that has adhered respective code of different ethics determined in the respective entity. The corporate ethics can also be considered about the response to the internal as well as external motivation.  Thus proper studies regarding the business activities and all the policies have considered determination regarding the controversial issues likewise, corporate governance as well as trading made through inside approach. Moreover, determination of bribery, discrimination and also corporate social responsibilities has been endeavoured by the aspects of ethical corporate culture of the organization.  It has been stated that every organization has always possessed some of the primary values as well as different rules of ethics among the employees that every employees have the feasibilities to follow it. It has been revealed from the different aspects of code concerning the ethics will be valueless considering the aspects of the top officials of the management which have failed to delineate the models of ethical behaviours. Each and every organization has to offer proper training regarding the ethics so as to ensure effective organizational behaviour in the entity. This has been perceived from the aspects of setting up seminars with the help of effective workshops and also ethical training programs.

Creation of Ethical Corporate Culture

It is quite evident that the having a corporate culture has always emphasized the ethical behaviour which could easily short down accumulating the misbehaviour possessed by the organizations operating their business in today’s economic environment. Different research has showcased the aspects entailing about the fact that even though a organization has developed its culture which prolifically emphasized the aspects of pertaining actions that are right assumes costly methods has always comes down to the respective leaders that have started with the high level officials of the firm which is considered with all the ethical consequences for the actions that they have propounded. In accordance to Robbins and Judge (2009) it can be perceived that there are some of the invincible procedures which the management of any organization has always have to follow so as to pertain much more corporate cultures ethically. 
It can be said that there is the instances of being a role model as well as have to be visible enough. Employees has the affability to look towards behaviour possessed by the top level management officials as a model which is considered to be acceptable behaviour in the respective workplace where effective diligence have been pertained. Thus it is quite important for all the employees to adhere a optimistic message that will lead the subordinates to possess the corporate culture in a right direction so as to ensure proper working efficiency in the organization. Moreover, the ethical ambiguities can be decreased through creating as well as disseminating all the corporate codes of ethics. This will be justified through communicating the ethical expectations among the employees.  It can be stated that the overall corporate values as well as the ethical rues has always been followed by the employees so as to deliver the importance in gathering different perception of the organization. Thus it will be considered to be insignificant if all the management officials that are headed with top positions will fail to strengthen the ethical behavioural models. Apart from this, offering the ethical training through understanding the corporate culture is quite necessary so as to reinforce the standard of conduct in the organization. This will be perceived through the aspects of setting up seminars, different effective workshops and also different programs of ethical training. The clarifications regarding the practices are often not permissible and thus probable ethical dilemmas have to be perceived in order to generate significance. On the other hand, performance appraisals regarding the managers has also included the evaluation considering how the decisions can be measured reflecting hindering possibilities concerning the code of ethics of the organization. The appraisal should have included the means delivering the aspects for achieving all the goals. This has meant the significance of visibly reward towards the ethical acts as well as punishing the unethical individuals. Moreover, some of the protective mechanisms have been introduced so as to pertain the needs for determining formal mechanism through which the employees can always reveal the problems faced due to ethical dilemmas. The employees should have to report regarding the unethical behaviour possessed without justifying the fear concerning reprimand. This has always included the aspects of creation made by the ethical counsellors and officers in a corporation.

Strengthening the conduct ascertained in the organization culture

This is an exceptionally basic truth from essential operand moulding that any school rookies would find out about in their early on brain science course. Additionally, it is a truth that has been known for eras. On the off chance that you need conduct to proceed with, then strengthen it. On the off chance that you need conduct to suspend, don't fortify it. This is a truly basic truth yet it is frequently difficult to do and difficult to recall for some associations and people alike. Also, it is positively simpler said than done. Associations must be careful and deliberate about what practices they need to strengthen and what practices they don't need fortified. Moral conduct must be unmistakably fortified with the goal that it will keep on occurring. Dangerous exploitative conduct has not to be fortified if the association wishes to stifle these undesirable practices. Offering open doors for acknowledgment, honours, and social fortifications for alluring moral practices can go far to advance the sorts of moral culture wanted in any association. Positively, these prizes or fortifications must be keenly considered and conveyed with cautious thoughtfulness regarding both proposed and unintended outcomes of utilizing them.

Building the aptitudes concerning the critical thinking procedure

Associations can do an extraordinary arrangement to centre their consideration around creating moral abilities and critical thinking systems. Instead of just expressing what sorts of practices are normal or not, foundations must help with the well ordered methodologies for creating viable moral basic leadership and conduct aptitudes and systems for settling moral predicaments or inconveniences. Workshops, simple to utilize reference materials, progressing and promptly accessible counsel from associates or coaches are quite recently a portion of the numerous ways foundations can help with preparing understudies and staff to best utilize the apparatuses that are accessible to them to take an interest in better and more attentive moral basic leadership. In the event that an association needs to make a culture of morals they should make certain that individuals have the apparatuses that they have to do as such. These incorporate satisfactory and proper preparing, meeting, displaying, and supervision. These apparatuses likewise incorporate having the capacity to convey inner and outside to the association specialists into connect with staff at all levels of preparing and critical thinking also.
The organization has also cumulated their staff that can give a point of convergence to getting apparatuses and assets to better help with moral discussion. Another essential and imperative standards obtained from early on brain research is the idea of prompt restorative input. Unless associations offer opportune and keen remedial criticism with respect to conduct they will improbable make a culture of morals. Support for conduct that is wanted and remedial input for conduct that is not coveted is basic to help make and manage a culture of moral conduct and thought. This restorative criticism should be led in the soul of coordinated effort and instruction as opposed to as far as discipline or rebuke. Coordinated effort and training take into account more openness and less retentiveness when criticism is given. Prompt input is basic to expand a more full through the downplaying of the issue conduct also.


Accordingly, authoritative pioneers must try to do as they say others should do and make certain that they demonstrate for others the wanted practices that they wish to support inside their associations. The possibilities has changed in accordance to the most elevated principles of morals are wanted inside an association then high profiles pioneers in that association much exhibit these guidelines and be blameless in such manner. Their activities frequently will talk louder than their words with regards to making a more moral environment inside their associations.


Treatment 6


Depression is defined as “persistent feelings of sadness and despair and loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure” (Myers, 2011). According to many researchers and doctors, depression has emerged as one of the major problems among the children. The rate of suicide in North America is 11/100000. This creates the countrywide suicide rate considerably greater than the nation. The suicide rate in the United States has been reported to 30000 resulting in mainly from depression. Two third of suicides are being happened by depression.  High suicide rate is shown among the teenagers and children; untreated depression is the cause for the death of children (Gelfand & Teti, 1990). Depression in children is a serious mental illness, which causes pain for both the family as well as for the children. Children are the future of the country; however, many children are suffering from many mental sicknesses, which affect their regular growth and development. Depression is truly painful and causes children to obligate suicide. There are various types of depression, which have typical cause, symptoms and effects. The current paper will analyze the causes of depression, negative impact of depression on the children and treatment process for depression among children.

Mental & emotional behaviors

Depression is the emotional and mental behavior, which affects everybody including children. Many researchers have done researches to find out the main causes of depression. Although there is no clearly defined cause for mental sickness and this varies from person to person, yet depression is caused by a concoction of circumstances and biological factors. It might be caused due to various factors including genetics as well. Family history also triggers depression in children and teenagers. The Genetics may play vital role in depression; however, as per the doctors as well as many researchers, it is not the single reason of depression.
In addition to this, many events of life also play a significant role in depression. Children might also be depressed after some tragic or sad incident such as death of loved ones. The death of a loved one affects their mental health largely. They are unable to recover from it. Some other factors include divorce or a remarriage of parents. The children have no choice but to accept the truth and at the same time, they start suffering from depression. Changing of schools and shifting homes have also been found to be dominant factor in contributing depression.
According to Myers (2011), negative family ambiance badly affects the minds of children. As an outcome to this, it causes depression among children. School stress is also one of the vital keys of depression among children. Children cannot find out the solution as they are not mature enough to solve these issues and eventually start suffering from depression. There are various signs or symptoms of depression such as sadness, bleakness, boredom, crying and loss of interest in doing any kind work.

Analyzing Depression

In accordance with many doctors and researchers, there are various kinds of depression that an individual might experience (Kaslow, Rehm & Siegel, 1984). The symptom of depression is seen within the children from their early childhood. The most diagnosed kind of depression in children consists of Major Depression, Bipolar disorder and Dysthymia. Major depression is also identified as the medical depression, unipolar depression as well as vital depressive anarchy. This depression lasts from seven to nine months and its signs are lack of enjoyment in actions, sadness, sleep troubles, loss of hunger, and lack of concentration, memory troubles and pains.
Children who suffer from this situation often feel abandoned, hopeless and worthless in their lives and fail to fix their present conditions.
            Another depression, which is found common in children, is Dysthymia this is known as double depression.  The signs of Dysthymia generally emerge in children; however, in very few cases do not appear until the middle age. Dysthymia depression lasts up to two weeks and almost similar as major depression.  However, there are some differences in symptoms and span of depression. Reasons of Dysthymia depression in children are bad grades in school, shyness, communal withdrawal and disagreement with family as well as friends. Three percent of population is suffering from Dysthymia depression in the globe.
Kapornai, K., & Vetró, Á. (2008) proposes that bipolar disorder often known as manic-depressive sickness is also found among children. In this particular depression, there are several signs that change the moods of children. The children who suffer from this disorder have different mood swings. Sometimes they feel very happy and satisfied with their daily activities and sometimes they feel down and sad for no reason. Other symptoms of bipolar depression disorder include changes in the energy level, action level and the capability to do every day work. Bipolar disorder is the main cause of breaking any kind of relationship as well as can lead to suicide.

Effects of Depression

Depression has high impact on the mind and physical activities of children. According to various doctors and care practitioners, mental stability of children might be hampered due to this issue. Children are not able to focus on their education and other curriculum activities. Doctors stated that children always suffer from some tension and stress that affect their minds. In the year of 2006, Mr. Weisz stated that children could be de-motivated or demoralized due to the depression. Children might not be socialized due to this issue.
Parents and care workers are being concerned about this issue. They always face trouble due to the issues associated with children. According to doctors and other officials, children should be provided a sound living and educational environment where they can lead their lives happily. Thinking capability of children needs to be explored. Depressed children cannot make any serious activity and cannot focus on their daily activities. According to the observers, if human beings face depression at an early age, then it can be harmful for their careers (Kaufman, 2006).
            The treatment of depression includes psychological and clinical procedures. Nevertheless, the treatment strategy should be planed individually, taking into consideration the child's age, developmental stage and risk/protective characteristics (e.g. psychopathology in the family, individual temperament, cognitive and emotional regulatory factors, existing co-morbidity and experience of stressful life events), and the medication or psychotherapy preferences of the patient and the care giver. In primary care practice, however, treatment options are limited by lack of availability of trained psychotherapists (Hazell, 2012).


The current research paper showcased the impact of depression in children. With the help of this paper, overall understanding of depression among children is highlighted. It is observed that different factors create depression in children’s mind. Depression creates different health issues among children due to which they suffer badly. Parents and doctors should focus on this matter so that children can be rescued from the complicated circumstances.


How can students manage time more effectively in academic writing? By Guest Writer Aparajita Das

Hi everyone!Today's featured post is from our guest writer Aparajita Das 

Thank you Aparajita for sharing your post

High school and university students have a never ending time crunch

High school and university students have a never ending time crunch.Most students would swear, that the lack of time is what amplifies pressure in higher studies. Academic writing consists of a large chunk of your grade whether it be a research project, a descriptive essay or a case study.While we’ve all done our equal share of complaining, the truth is cribbing won’t make the tasks any easier.Thus, here is a compilation of tips to help you cope with time management in academic writing.

1. Get yourself a personal organize
A personal organizer can be an absolute life saver when you’re juggling multiple assignments. We suggest that you keep a separate organizer/planner devoted just for academic writing.
This way, you can keep track of all of your progress in different academic writing assignments at one go and stay organized.
In the organizer, make a timetable to note the progress that you’re making.

2. Maintain a checklist

When we have a lot on our mind, we tend to forget small bits and pieces.But this small slip may result in severe consequences.The best way to avoid this, is to create a checklist or to-do list, as and when you think of it.On completing the task, just check your way through the list.If you cannot find enough time to complete your assignments then you should ask for assistance from reputable companies like Preeminent Academic Writers.The company has a team of well-versed scholars who can handle assignment of any type.This tip can make you much more time efficient as well as improve the quality of your academic writing.

3. Stay ahead of your institution deadlines

Your institution will have a prescribed deadline for each step of composition of your academic writing.
To stay on top of your game, set deadlines of your own prior to those given by your teachers.
By doing so, you’ll never miss a deadline or have to slog last minute. Getting an early start, is definitely a smart move in time management.

4. Split up your time into segments

Time is spent most efficiently when you have an idea of exactly what to do and when to do it. And to do that, you need to break it down into components.
Research and data collection stage, hypothesis formulation, first draft of academic writing, revision and redrafting are some segments of a scientific academic paper.
Once you finalize the number of stages or segments you require for an assignment, you can decide on the number of hours you want to devote to each stage of the process.
You can also allot a time limit to each segment to stay on track.

5. Pay attention to the components of writing

This point is very similar to what we discussed above, with special emphasis on the academic writing aspect.
Once you’re going through your first draft, pay attention to each aspect of academic writing. Check for spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, format and structure related inconsistencies. Also, don’t forget to correctly reference all of the sources that you’ve utilized.
This will take you much less time as compared to getting it right at one go, as the latter is unrealistic and impossible for most students and academics.

6. Take a break

No, you shouldn’t forget the significance of taking a break; it plays a vital role.
Remember, efficiency in any task requires a refreshed brain and academic writing is no different. When you sit down to work on academic writing, give yourself 5 minute breaks at intervals to keep that grey matter spinning.
This way you prevent yourself from getting fatigued easily, and will actually allow you to sit for a longer period than at a continuous stretch.

7. Bid farewell to interruptions

What is that one thing that doesn’t let you focus? Whether it’s the constant notifications on your phone or the pesky roommate that slows you down, you need to somehow dodge this interruption.
This will help you pick up pace in academic writing and allow you to focus better.
Keep your phone aside, or start studying in the library, or whatever is necessary to keep your distraction at bay.

Lastly, academic writing can be a long and cumbersome process but time management is the key. Once you plan your study in advance, you will be able to manage the pressure of submitting the project work in short span of time.  Managing time more efficiently also help you to get the most out of life. It can help you to live calmly and stress free and you will be able to get the higher marks throughout the school year. Best of luck

About the Author Guest Writer-Aparajita Das

Aparajita Das works as a contributor writer . She also shares 

her expertise through her well-researched articles based on 

academic writing and academic help, assignment management

 and so on. 

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