Psychodynamic Theory ( Subject: Psychology )


                                   


In psychodynamic theory, there are many postulates obtainable. One of the five postulates of contemporary psychodynamic theory identified by Westen (1998) include Stable personality. This postulate has been considered as one of the major postulates in order to comprehend the psychodynamic theory. In accordance to Westen, (1998), it has been observed from the literature that, personality traits are comparatively durable characteristics that become very much constant from childhood to adulthood. However, it has been examined that, stability over the personality aspects is not faultless at any phase in the existence (Westen, 1998). There are several important factors of this postulate which play an important role in the psychodynamic counselling. For instance, by applying this postulate the counsellors find a way of thinking along with feeling and behaving for their clients in a specific way. Also by understanding the stable personality postulate major aspects the counsellors are able to create a difference among the individuals over their characteristics. In psycho dynamic counselling there are many of those dissimilar ways included in the process of quantifying the personality stability. Heterotypic stability has always been deemed as one of those crucial aspects under the circumstances of psychodynamic theory. It generally refers to the psychological rationality of an individual’s belief as along with opinion and behaviour across enlargement. There is another major stability included under the circumstances. Absolute stability has been considered as one of the major aspects in the process of maintaining the consistency level of individual’s personality traits across the time.

Adlerian counsellor’s lifestyle assessment:

It has been observed that client’s early recollections are used in the process of originating towards the flawed values, which are always leading to feelings of inadequacy along with maladaptive behaviour and existence. There are many of those major perspectives included under the circumstances which have been proved as very essential in order to understand the whole scenario. According to Safran and Kriss (2014) conventional Adlerian depth psychoanalysis has been deemed as very significant in the process of unshackling the individuals from the constraint of ancient lifestyle. However, it also covers the area of conquering the fictional final goal. Changing the overall core of the personality has been judged as a major conflict under this scenario. It has been examined that the early childhood recollections have been used to form an assumption of the existence for the client.
However, the overall information has also been used to construe the confidential logic of the client during the psychoanalysis procedure. There are many of those instances accessible in order to comprehend the entire scenario. It has been noticed that gaining the trust of the clients has become very crucial for the therapist in the process of gathering all valid information. The entire information scenario states client’s present life problem along with life tasks and information. From those crucial assumptions, it can be observed that, any individual’s maladjustment always being pigeonholed for increasing under developed social interest as along with inferiority feelings and personal superiority (Bitter, & Nicoll, 2000).  

Application of Jung’s theory in counselling:

It has been observed that personality can be illustrated as someone’s patterns of characteristics along with thought of emotions and behavior concern in the process of portraying psychological mechanism. It has been examined that persuading both genetic factors along with heredity factors; background and cultural experiences always influence individual’s personality. In the process of finding proper paths along with finding solutions for the issues, unique personality of the clients has always been deemed as a major aspect under the circumstances. Therefore, Carl Jung’s overall theory about types of personality for different individuals can be applied for patients who suffer from psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia.
It has also been observed that, in the process of conducting counselling setting along with influential the client’s goals, this process has been deemed as very essential. Carl Jung’s theory portrays many kind of personality structures as along with dynamics of the human consciousness (Galipeau, 2013). Through Jung’s theory the client can hold unique experiences and reminiscences. For example, the individuals who suffer from depression by applying Jung’s theory can find the meaning of strong conceptualization of their experiences and can recover quickly.
Also, archetypes have always been considered as very crucial in the process of forming various symbols, which are apparent by every individual across the culture. In accordance to Jung, collective unconscious is very essential thing for the humans in order to understand the entire personality scenario (Dehing, 1992). After discussing many of those valuable aspects about this theory, it can be observed that, an extrovert person always ahead from the introvert person in the process of holding outward moving psychic energy.

Culture, Beliefs and Values ( Subject: Psychology)

Describe the Ways in Which Culture, Beliefs, Values, the Environment, and Behavior Interact

I think various aspects of life have different connections and meaning in the psychological sphere with their influence leading to behavioral changes. Notably, culture defines the societal norms and behaviors that apply to a specified group and could differ from one community to the next. Culture relates to acceptable conduct and has an intricate influence on behavior as an individual has to conduct himself/herself in an acceptable manner. The inherent capacity of human beings to understand and perceive the world through senses emphasizes the importance of the environment in the development of behaviors as people respond to their surroundings. For example, behaviors during the daytime could have differences from the conduct of individuals at night; similar responses are evident when exposed to different environmental features.

Therefore, the crystallization of behaviors among certain people because of the environmental features contributes to the development of strong cultural values that indicate acceptable conduct according to the surrounding. The interactions are further intertwined with the belief systems that have significant differences according to the culture and environment. Beliefs underline the acceptance of certain concepts in the society as being either valid or false and determine how a person interacts with the culture. Hence, beliefs could be molded at the personal or communal level and either leads to the acceptance of various cultural norms or their rejection. Notably, beliefs are important in shaping one’s reaction to religious principles and affiliation with certain groups. Beliefs relate closely to values that signal what an individual holds as dear and dictate the distinction between wrong and right. Values can be applicable to a group but majorly affect the behavior of an individual as one applies them as the guidelines in decision-making for different situations. 


Professionalism in Nursing ( subject: nursing )








Introduction

In every sector, professionalism has been deemed as one of the most decisive factors in the process of conducting the entire work scenario. Just like any other profession, nursing sector is also very much depended on professionalism (Cho, & Kim, 2014). There are many aspects available, that indicate towards the need and importance of professionalism in nursing. Non-biased care for the patients, integrity, respect for the patients along with positives attitude and appearance has been considered as one of the major aspects to build a strong professionalism in nursing. However, sometimes lack of professionalism has also been noticed in nursing. In the given study, there will be a brief discussion about inappropriate attire and unpreparedness in nursing.

Inappropriate Attire:

Appropriate attire has always been proved to be a very important quality for the nurses in the process of presenting themselves to patients and others. In the nursing sector there are some rules available, which are mandatory to follow. Staffs are always required to wear appropriate attire in order to abide by those rules. The clothes of the staffs can create a huge impact over patient’s mindset. It is extremely essential for the nurses to use proper attire so that their work should be conducted smoothly. Casual sports t-shirts, leisure shorts, exposed clothing along with cloths that carries inappropriate slogans has always been considered as one of those non-acceptable clothing in nursing (Tanaka, et al., 2016). After clothes, footwear is also very vital part in the adaption process of proper attire in nursing. Stiletto heels along with plastic flip-flops are not acceptable in this field. Staffs should wear proper formal footwear according to the mentioned rules by the governance body.  On the other hand, visible tattoos can discourage the patients. Visible tattoos have always been considered inappropriate and they should be properly covered.
 However, improper jewellery and piercing is also very crucial thing for the staff and they need to avoid that. At the time of providing clinical care, staff must not wear wristwatches. Piercing of any kind is required to be covered at the time of duty. Maintenance of proper hairstyle is also very important thing for the staffs; hair should be tidy and neat all the time. Beards should be in proper shape. Untidy hair or beard can create a bad impact on patient’s psychology.

Unpreparedness:

In the nursing field, unpreparedness has been believed as one of the major concerns for the novice nurses. There are many instances under certain circumstances; that highlight this major issue. Proper communication with the patients and their relatives is very important task for the nurses (Tanaka, et al., 2014).
However, managerial challenges have also been deemed as one of the major issues for the novice nurses. Conducting work in various shifts is a major problem for the novice nurses. In the recent time, new nurses vehemently become the shift manager. This thing creates a huge problem for the team members as along with the patients. Before putting the nurses in those crucial positions, it is very crucial to prepare them for those positions. It’s the responsibility of the nurses to be mentally prepared for any kind of emergency and taking appropriate step is extremely essential (Fantahun, et al., 2014).

Conclusion:

After discussing lot of things about professionalism in the nursing sector, it can be said that, to provide proper services to the patients and understanding their requirements, professionalism has been considered as a major thing. Hence it is essential to identify all the necessary issues that comes in the field of nursing. Based on the issues identified steps should be implemented in order to overcome the issues and maintain proper professionalism in the field of nursing.

Psychology Quiz help
1)
The psychologist known for the PEN model with it’s three broad personality dimensions was
a)
Gordon Allport
b)
Hans Eysenck
c)
Raymond Cattell
d)
Sigmund Freud
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

b)
Hans Eysenck
b)
Hans Eysenck


2)
If you prefer an approach which divides human personality into a large number of narrow/specific categories, chances are you are primarily interested in
a)
personality research
b)
developmental psychology
c)
clinical psychology
d)
social interactions
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
personality research
c)
clinical psychology

3)
One of the "Big Five" factors that describe the major features of personality is
a)
extraversion
b)
consistency
c)
locus of control
d)
distinctiveness
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
extraversion
a)
extraversion
4)
The statistical technique which Raymond Cattell used to come up with his list of 16 personality factors was
a)
factor analysis
b)
Chi square
c)
the c-test
d)
the standard deviation
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
factor analysis
a)
factor analysis
5)
Adam strongly believes that premarital sex is wrong, but when he is alone with his girlfriend, his sexual desires are very strong. According to Freud, the part of the personality which would likely try to resolve this conflict is the
a)
id
b)
superego
c)
superid
d)
ego
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

d)
ego
d)
ego
6)
During Freud's psychosexual stages of development, he felt that the id obtained pleasure from different
a)
erogenous zones
b)
sublimations
c)
defense mechanisms
d)
gender identities
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
erogenous zones
a)
erogenous zones
7)
Individuals who are rated as high on Eysenck’s _____ dimension are described as aggressive, hostile, impulsive, and non-conforming
a)
extraversion-introversion
b)
psychoticism
c)
neuroticism
d)
psychopathic deviance
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
extraversion-introversion
b)
psychoticism
8)
If you visit Adam's room, you may well find it hard to find a place to sit (or to find anything else). To describe his room as a “pig sty” would be an insult to pigs. According to Freud, Adam is most likely fixated at the _____ stage
a)
oral
b)
latency
c)
anal
d)
phallic
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

c)
anal
c)
anal
9)
Martin Seligman is known for his research on _____, a phenomenon often related to human depression.
a)
specific phobias
b)
disorganized schizophrenia
c)
learned helplessness
d)
obsessive-compulsive disorder
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

c)
learned helplessness
c)
learned helplessness
10)
The psychologist who is known for developing client-centered therapy, the treatment approach of the humanists, is
a)
Sigmund Freud
b)
Abraham Maslow
c)
Martin Seligman
d)
Carl Rogers
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

d)
Carl Rogers
d)
Carl Rogers
11)
Since he has a very strong need for acceptance and approval, Adam tends to be quite naive/gullible, accepting almost anything his friends tell him. Freud might well suspect that Adam is fixated at the _____ stage of psychosexual development
a)
oral
b)
latency
c)
anal
d)
phallic
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
oral
a)
oral
12)
Hans Eysenck’s list of personality dimensions, in its final version, contained _____ items
a)
200
b)
3
c)
15,000
d)
16
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

d)
16
b)
3
13)
If you are doing research trying to understand human personality, you are likely to prefer approaches to personality which
a)
divide personality into many narrow/precise categories
b)
divide personality into a few broad categories
c)
describe personality in purely behavioral terms
d)
emphasize the importance of social interactions
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

c)
describe personality in purely behavioral terms
b)
divide personality into a few broad categories
14)
Adam often strikes out at parents, teachers, and other authority figures who upset him, without considering the consequences of such actions (grounding, suspension, extra work, etc.). A psychoanalyst would suggest that Adam is demonstrating a weak
a)
id
b)
superego
c)
ego
d)
superid
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

b)
superego
c)
ego
15)
Personality is best defined as an individual's
a)
most positive characteristics
b)
relatively distinctive and consistent ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
c)
genetic psychological makeup
d)
unconscious thoughts and desires
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

b)
relatively distinctive and consistent ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
b)
relatively distinctive and consistent ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
16)
Between age 6 and puberty, children generally appear to show very little interest in sex. Since Freud was concerned with psychosexual development, he called this period the _____ stage
a)
latent
b)
asexual
c)
amgiguous
d)
lethargic
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

a)
latent
a)
latent
17)
According to Freud, the ego
a)
develops during the phallic stage
b)
is almost totally unconscious
c)
often mediates between the id and superego
d)
operates on the pleasure principle
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

c)
often mediates between the id and superego
c)
often mediates between the id and superego

18)
Eysenck’s personality dimension which is concerned with how the individual relates to other people and to his/her internal thoughts, and which Eysenck felt had much to do with arousal level, is
a)
neuroticism
b)
psychoticism
c)
extraversion-introversion
d)
psychopathic deviance
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

c)
extraversion-introversion
c)
extraversion-introversion
18)
Eysenck’s personality dimension which is concerned with how the individual relates to other people and to his/her internal thoughts, and which Eysenck felt had much to do with arousal level, is
a)
neuroticism
b)
psychoticism
c)
extraversion-introversion
d)
psychopathic deviance
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

c)
extraversion-introversion
c)
extraversion-introversion
19)
The scientific/research arm of humanistic psychology, known as positive psychology, is most associated with
a)
Sigmund Freud
b)
Carl Rogers
c)
Martin E. P. Seligman
d)
Abraham Maslow
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)

b)
Carl Rogers
c)
Martin E. P. Seligman
20)
As part of a psychological evaluation, Eve was shown a series of pictures and asked to tell stories about the pictures. She was most likely being given a(n) _____ test
a)
factor analytic
b)
objective
c)
projective
d)
sublimated
Your answer(s)
Correct answer(s)





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d)
sublimated
c)
projective



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