Attention: ( Subject: Psychology)




      Attention
What is attention and why do we need it? Is it possible to multi-task effectively? Is the modern world too distracting and over-stimulating for our brains? The answers to these questions are revealed in this engaging video that explores various aspects of attention, including distraction, divided attention, joint attention, and enhancing cognition. Essentially all organisms, including human beings, rely on attention as a means of survival. In the video, Jonathan Flombaum states that attention is "the way we're preset to focus in on what seems to be just the kind of information that we need to get around and survive in the world." While it is possible and often necessary to multi-task, the brain cannot focus completely on more than task at a time. The example of driving while talking on the phone is introduced to show how attention is vulnerable to distraction. An experiment is then presented in which individuals are asked to count the number of times team members pass a ball around. More likely than not, viewers fail to notice a gorilla that enters the scene for several seconds.
Joint attention, which occurs when humans or animals use signals or eye-gazing to communicate, is often studied by developmentalists. This capacity typically develops within the first year of life in humans and is thought to be a precursor to language. Problems with joint attention and other attention disorders are likely caused by disturbances in the prefrontal cortex and thalamus areas of the brain. Although medications and other activities have been shown to enhance cognition, Howard Egeth says that "equally important is crafting the world to fit the human.


Moral relativism ( Subject: Philosophy)

  

Is the position of moral relativism tenable (justifiable) or untenable (unjustifiable)? You can use deontology, universal rights, virtue ethics or utilitarianism to argue your position. In addition to the literature covered in class, you can use any of the cases we have discussed to support your position.

Moral relativism is identified to be those beliefs which are moral judgements denoted to be true or false from a detailed view point and that no identical standpoint is claimed to be unique over the all others. Under the aspects of moral relativism, it can be identified that one cannot deny that the moral values by a human society and there should be refraining from making moral judgements on a society’s beliefs and practices which is their own culture’s heritage. This enacts for a notion where the moral and ethical principles of a society have to be undertaken as a valuing or worthy context for the upliftment of a society. Under the concept of moral relativism in the modern societies, it can be judged that moral relativism appears to be thoroughly overruling the principles of utilitarianism and impedes for a non-justifiable approach of moral relativism.

Utilitarianism states for an ethical framework which determines an action within a particular society or culture which is invariably resonates the utility of the following action (Chudzicka-Czupała, 2013). It has been identified that utilitarianism is not directly comparable to the moral relativism as most of the utilitarian presents their principle on any of the criterion they are using – most of them are of universal concepts and not dependent over any cultural or societal phenomenon. For example, the women in the Muslim community wearing hijab can be determined to be a moral relativism for the people who are supporting the fact that one cannot hurt any cultural moral judgements by proclaiming their culture’s societal approach towards religious views to be superior. But the concept of utilitarianism states that this moral relativism is not justifiable as this does not have benefitting consequences, but rather hampering the moral ethical value of a gender i.e. women of a society.



PsychSim quiz help ( please contact me for explanation of answers)




1. 
Who studied color vision and what is now known as the action potentials of neurons?

Charles Darwin

Hermann von Helmholtz
René Descartes
Francis Bacon





2. 
The _____ approach to psychology emphasized the study of mental processes and focused on inner sensations, feelings, and thoughts.

introspection
functionalism
psychoanalysis

structuralism





3. 
Who studied perception and cognition in children?

B. F. Skinner
Carl Rogers
George Miller

Jean Piaget





4. 
What subfield of psychology examines the power of the social environment?


Social psychology
Gestalt psychology
Structuralism
Humanism





5. 
Who developed the hierarchy of needs?

Jean Piaget
Sigmund Freud
Charles Darwin

Abraham Maslow





6. 
Psychology has been an academic discipline for:

more than 300 years.
less than 100 years.
less than 300 years.

less than 200 years



7. 
Who was the father of empiricism?

René Descartes
Charles Darwin

Francis Bacon
John Locke



8. 
Who taught the first course in scientific psychology?

Edward Titchener
Hermann Ebbinghaus
John Locke

Wilhelm Wundt





9. 
Who was the leader in functionalism?

Hermann Ebbinghaus
Wilhelm Wundt
Edward Titchener

William James






10. 
https://d1go9fceb3w67f.cloudfront.net/brainhoney/Images/check.png
_____ was the first women to get a doctorate degree in psychology and studied animal behavior. 

Mary Whiton Calkins
Ingrid Thorndike
Mary Washburn

Margaret Floy Washburn



11. 
What subfield of psychology emphasizes the positive potential of humans?


Humanism
Gestalt psychology
Structuralism
Social psychology



12. 


_____ was a Greek philosopher, who was a nativist, believing aspects of a person's character and intelligence were innate and present at birth.

Aristotle
Francis Bacon

Plato
René Descartes





13. 
_____ was a Greek philosopher who was an empiricist, believing that everything a person knows comes from experiences and environment.

René Descartes

Aristotle
Plato
Francis Bacon





14. 
_____ argued that the mind was a blank slate, or tabula rasa.

René Descartes
Francis Bacon
Charles Darwin

John Locke





15. 
The _____ approach to psychology emphasized the purpose of each type of behavior, with a focus on the adaptive functions that the behavior played in helping our ancestors survive.


functionalism
introspection
structuralism
psychoanalysis





16. 
_____ was denied her doctorate degree in psychology from Harvard.


Mary Whiton Calkins
Ingrid Thorndike
Mary Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn



17. 
What did Ivan Pavlov study?

the law of effect
the Pavlovian box

classical conditioning
operant conditioning





18. 
_____ was a researcher who proclaimed that the behavioral findings of animal research could be applied to humans and did so with “Little Albert.”

Edward Thorndike
B. F. Skinner
Ivan Pavlov

John Watson





19. 
_____ was the researcher who discovered the “magical number 7.”

Carl Rogers

George Miller
Jean Piaget
B. F. Skinner



20. 
What subfield of psychology examines the adaptive significance of behavior and views natural selection as needed to promote survival?

Social psychology
Structuralism
Gestalt psychology

Evolutionary psychology



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