Practice Quiz for psychology
Answers:
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1. 
Thinking can BEST be defined as:

the process that precedes language.
a unique human capacity to analyze external stimuli and apply internal knowledge.
using your brain to process external information.
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the processing of information to solve problems and make judgments and decisions.

 

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2. 
The tendency to use _____ problem-solving strategies without considering others that are more appropriate for the current problem is called _____.

meaningful; anchoring
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previously successful; mental set
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functional; fixation
new; mental set




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3. 
Solving the “matchstick problem” frequently results from _____, the rapid understanding of the problem's solution.

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induction
deduction
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insight
serendipity




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4. 
The formula “two parts oil to one part vinegar” is guaranteed to yield decent oil-and-vinegar salad dressing. In problem-solving terms, this recipe is a(n):

mental set.
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schema.
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algorithm.
heuristic.


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5. 
In our everyday lives, we use subjective hypothesis testing on a regular basis. This fact may account, in part, for the prevalence of beliefs in:

aspirin to reduce the risk of stroke.
love.
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paranormal phenomena.
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the benefits of exercise.




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6. 
Although it is typically a successful strategy for making probability judgments, the use of _____ can lead to errors, especially if it causes one to ignore relevant information.

insight
random guessing
algorithms
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heuristics

 

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7. 
Sonya was confronted with research findings demonstrating that long-term smoking is associated with health problems. She denied this fact and responded, “My grandfather smoked three packs a day for 40 years and never had any problems.” This demonstrates:

use of the representativeness heuristic.
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person-who reasoning.
the gambler's fallacy.
illusory correlation.

 

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8. 
David Wechsler believed in the importance of _____ on intelligence. As a result of his interest in broader assessments of intelligence that included nonverbal performance tests, he developed the _____ as alternatives to the Stanford-Binet test.

environment; WAMP and WIMP
heredity; WAMP and WIMP
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environment; WAIS and WISC
heredity; WAIS and WISC




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9. 
For a test to be _____, it must be _____. The reverse _____ true.

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valid; reliable; is
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valid; reliable; is not
reliable; valid; is
reliable; valid; is not




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10. 
An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time Paul takes it. Based on this information, the test is:

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reliable but definitely not valid.
reliable and potentially valid.
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not reliable and definitely not valid.
not reliable but possibly valid.



Philosophy



Kant would not agree with physicians lying to their patients regarding a diagnosis.



According to Kant's view point truth telling should be considered as a moral duty and all the physicians should abide their duty in a proper way. Kant believed that any kind of deception which is intentional in the doctor-patient relationship might give rise to several obstacles that can affect the clinical care. The deception might be discrete with the generous practice of medicine. Therefore, Kant argues that as we are not aware of certain consequences of our actions therefore lying with the patients even in the worst conditions is not justifiable and is completely wrong. As Kant believed that telling truth is a moral duty therefore lies becomes self defeating when people come to know that they cannot trust other person even when the case is of his or her own physician. For example, in case of a doctor patient relationship if the patient has a bipolar disorder and the doctor lies to him about this the patient will eventually find the diagnosis one day and will indulge in negative emotions. The negative experience of being betrayed by the doctor can give rise to rage, confusion, despair and betrayal. Moreover, the deceived people get narcissistically hurt due to this betrayal and soon come to realize that they are no longer important to the liar and not shrewd enough to recognize the lie.




My review on Chapter 1 of Psychology

First, the biological perspective caught my eye because it explained that mental emotions could be caused and treated by chemical imbalances. These could include many emotions like anxiety and depression. These mental illnesses can be self inflicted, but chemical imbalances in your neural transmitters can affect the way you perceive these feelings and emotions and how you act on them. Different moods are processed through different areas of your brain, and if one area isn't working properly biological psychologists can help figure out which area needs to be medicated. For example, depression has been seen to improve over a span of a few weeks only after taking Zoloft or Prozac, which are common antidepressants according to the text.

The second perspective was based off of problem solving and reasoning, called cognitive processing. As humans, we have learned from past experiences to organize information categorically, based on what's easiest to memorize or what sticks out to us the most. When you can relate something unique to what you're trying to remember, it sticks in our brains better. I liked the text's examples of, "What do you think of when you hear the word fruit?', and someone shouts out apple or banana because they are the most common. Information that you study and know, yet when it comes time to be tested on it and your brain goes blank, are all areas of your cognitive processing and I didn't think there was an explanation for why our brain does this, this was one of my favorites to read about.

It is only natural that we react based on our environment, and I learned there was a name for this; behavioral perspective. This taught me that the reasons we do this are categorized into two branches, classical and operant. Classical behavioral perspective explains why our fear, emotional responses, tastes and behaviors are linked together. This was proven that we respond to different situations based on benefits. We are more likely to return to somewhere that was favored in our best interest, where as if we had a negative experience chances are we are going to avoid returning. This was all new information for me, although the text states that the operant branch is much more important. The perfect example from chapter one was how when a student asks a question in class and receives positive feedback they are more likely to ask more questions, where as if they are ridiculed or made felt stupid or annoying they will be discouraged to asking questions in the future. This is an example that I feel people experience on a daily basis because it is only natural that humans want to feel accepted and praised, so when we don't get that feeling we tend to stray away from the situation in most cases.

The last topic that I learned was sociocultural perspective. I really enjoyed this one because it explained why humans are attached and affected by their surroundings and people around them. We react and base our emotions off of feelings and cultures that we are surrounded by. This means that we care about what people think of us, and we usually feel and do things based off of other people and their reactions to a situation or you.

I think the most useful in the future for me will be cognitive processing. This includes understanding what it is, how I can benefit from it and how I can improve different aspects of my life by this. Memory, thinking, and intelligence all fall under this category for me, especially with school work. I am not only an anxious person by nature, but I am a horrible test taker. I can study for a month straight, have every detail memorized and recite it orally for an exam but when it comes to an empty room with a pencil, paper, and scantron my brain goes blank on me. This can be quite frustrating, especially trying to get into a nursing program that focuses on test taking skills and problem solving. When I first started to notice it was a reoccurring issue for me I shut down and I couldn't pass a single test, although my assignments were all receiving A's. I was starting to feel like maybe college wasn't for me. After reading and learning about neural receptors and areas of your brain that cause this, it makes me feel like I can learn to train myself out of these bad habits with help. I'm confident that the more I work on it, the easier anxiety will get for me, making it easier for me to access areas of my brain that need to be accessed according to the time. I would definitely use this information to help me in the future finishing my degree.


Marginality Response

Marginality is such type of a concept that should be eliminated from the society and this can be only done if the people who feel that they are being marginalized change their perceptions and view things differently from a broader view point. In addition to this marginality can also be decreased if there emerges equality among different classes in a society and racism and segregation comes to an end.




Psychology Quiz Practice Test ( Psychology )


1. Who is credited for the identification of operant conditioning?


Ivan Pavlov


B.F. Skinner


John Watson


Robert Sternberg



2. In operant conditioning, when a behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases that behavior, the stimulus is called a(n):


reinforcer.


action.


punisher.


response.



3. Which type of stimulus following a behavior removes something that is unpleasant?


positive punisher


negative punisher


negative reinforcer


positive reinforcer



4. The expected outcome when a behavior is followed by a reinforcer is that the behavior:


is not likely to be repeated.


will cause excitement in the animal.


will cause regret in the animal.


is likely to be repeated.



5. Tammy is potty training her two-year-old daughter. Every time her daughter sits on the potty, Tammy gives her one cookie. What is the reinforcer?


the mother


sitting on the potty


the potty itself


the cookie



6. Margaret gives her teenagers five dollars for each grade of an A on their report card. This monetary stimulus is a:


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


negative punisher.


positive punisher.



7. Deedra gives her dog a treat every time he urinates outside. In this example, the treat is a:


negative punisher.


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


positive punisher.



8. Learning occurs rapidly with a _____ schedule of reinforcement.


variable-ratio


variable-interval


continuous


fixed-ratio



9. When a reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a set period of time has elapsed, which reinforcement schedule is being used?


variable-ratio


fixed-interval


variable-interval


fixed-ratio



10. A _____ reinforcement schedule gives the reinforcer for the first response that occurs after a varying period of time has elapsed.


variable-interval


variable-ratio


fixed-interval


fixed-ratio



11. Which type of stimulus following a behavior provides a reward for that behavior?


negative reinforcer


negative punisher


positive punisher


positive reinforcer



12. Every time Stacey puts the keys in her car's ignition the car begins to make a ding sound until she buckles her seat belt. What is the reinforcer?


the buckle


the ding sound


Stacey


the car ignition



13. Jennifer has a sunburn and applies ointment cream for relief. In this example the ointment cream is a:


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


positive punisher.


negative punisher.



14. Preston came home after his curfew. His parents grounded him for a week, taking away his phone and not allowing him to go anywhere after school. In this example, the act of grounding is a:


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


negative punisher.


positive punisher.



15. With a _____ schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcer is given after a set number of responses.


continuous


variable-ratio


fixed-ratio


variable-interval



16. A _____ reinforcement schedule gives the reinforcer after a varying number of responses.


variable-interval


fixed-ratio


variable-ratio


fixed-interval



17. Learning that occurs due to _____ extinguishes slowly.


interval reinforcement


partial reinforcement


continuous reinforcement


variable reinforcement



18. B.F. Skinner believed that behavior:


is learned through modeling.


should be followed by punishment.


is controlled by consequences.


is naturally learned by watching others.



19. Markus has put off doing his homework so that he can play video games. His mother starts nagging him to do his homework. Markus turns off the video game and does his homework to stop his mother from nagging. In this example, the nagging is a:


negative punisher.


positive punisher.


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.



20. With a _____ schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcer is given after every instance of a desired behavior.


fixed-ratio


variable-ratio


continuous


variable-interval






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