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Algorithmic/super power policing in Canada   -  Subject: Political Science




Algorithms in policing are applied in Canada, yet the pace is slower than in the U.S. Still, there are questions on algorithms usage in screening. Discrimination cases and criminal charges are still in question. The human rights people are also coming on the front to discuss that just because algorithms are helpful does not mean that these must be allowed, as these lose human rights. However, the algorithms functions have proven to be good in data collection as scattered data about an individual or event at different places can be collected instantly. This information can further be used for predictive measures. The purpose of algorithmic policing is to ensure the better safety of Canadians. 



The current reflection critically analyzes the algorithm's system implication on the Canadian landscape. The implication has already been started, and artificial intelligence is applied in surveillance and predictive programs. The paper has concerned journals and reports to make an undetailed analysis of the algorithmic system. The algorithmic approach has benefitted Canadian society as mentioned:

"with the rise of algorithmic governance…people experiencing homelessness can be policed and punished."[1]

Thesis statement: Algorithms systems have become an important policy tool in the Canadian policing system; however, the human rights charter is not explainable as the rights to privacy, equality, and liberty are violated.


One Concept Learned From Topic

Algorithmic policing in Canada will help to monitor crimes more closely by taking a good grip on criminals through tracking Algorithmic data. Social media communication comments and posts, including facial and personal tracking, may help reduce crime and increase city safety measures. The algorithm in policing is shown as a positive side for policing departments; however, there are threats to human rights as humans are no safer concerning privacy, livery, and equality. 


Significance of the Topic

Algorithmic policing is revolutionizing the informational world as people are classified at regional, provisional and federal levels. The information about the people scattered in different private and public sectors is now available in one place. This is more or less like a surveillance technology, which has been legalized by now via legislation. Algorithmic technologies are legalized to collect disparate information as mentioned:

"provide an alternative understanding and implementation of citizenship, belongings, rights, ethics, morality, human agency, security and borders."[2]

 This is not only about data collection; the data can also be used to make trends and analyze the future. The police services are holding some severe deleterious cases, and the instances of races are resolved by surveillance technology. The unfairness of individuals can be predicted, and due to this, professionals have raised concerns that surveillance technologies are working within the ideal limits of the law.

Views from Other Scholars

Different implications of algorithmic policing systems are observed in other parts of Canada. Departments like the Toronto Police Service and Saskatoon Police Service collaborate with ministries to make predictive analytic labs in different regions, including Vancouver. The purpose is to ensure better safety measures by using Algorithmic work and c extension to hub for community safety. The at-risk individuals can also be identified. The Calgary police service also uses such services along with the Ontario Ministry of the attorney general. The pretrial risk assessment tool is also applied, and technology helps decision-making. The paper summarizes the linkage between university machine learning projects and risk assessment instrument development to release the right decisions for young offenders. The majority use surveillance technologies such as license plate readers, and the Calgary police service uses them for social media surveillance. Chat room scraping and facial recognition technology is applied by almost all police station in Ontario[3]

In addition, Algorithmic policy technology has helped in two ways, i.e. making predictions or finding trends and increasing surveillance. The human rights implications draw inferences; these methods can be location-focused or person-focused. The methods predict the individual likelihood of engaging in any illicit activity. Alike the authors mentioned above, the report of Kenyon has also said the types of surveillance technologies, i.e. facial and social media surveillance technology, along with many others. Canadian law enforcement agencies are using it to preoptic the policing methods. The program's names are divided into GeoDASH algorithmic policing systems, and the Toronto police service utilizes it as Environics Analytics. Person-focused algorithm policing is a new technology mentioned in detail in this paper, and there is police predictive analytic land in Saskatchewan police stations. Social media content and telecommunications information are also used in person-focused Algorithmic policing technologies. Though it is debated if civil liberties are violated this way, in reality, the international human rights law completely protects the Canadian charter of rights and freedom. Algorithmic functions may endanger the right to privacy and rights to freedom of expression along with rights to livery and equality; however, Algorithmic technology is still expanding by the time[4]

Analyzing it from human rights expert's point of view, it is not wrong to say that human rights violations must not be justified as explained. This is a fact owing to development in technology. Canadian police stations have applied this technology, and A.I. has accounted for 48 law enrolment agonies across Canada. The correction systems are utilized in deciding bail and parole as well. The case of Nijeer Parks is famous in which consigned lived in jail for 11 days before going on a pretrial monitoring program. However, human rights are at risk due to a lack of transparency. The peer review journal has raised serious questions about the inaccuracy of the Algorithmic system and discriminatory-based questions. Kate knows that Ontario police, due to false facial recognition, arrested a person, and this was an act of racialized. As mentioned in a peer reviews journal:

Can police officers serve as the harbingers of human rights in a world that desperately needs it?[5]

Outstanding Questions

Several questions can be anticipated, such as whether law enforcement agencies are transparent in utilizing algorithmic policy or not and also argue about the working of surveillance technologies made under the jurisdiction of the law. It is essential to note that the algorithmic policing that defines human rights character and what explanations can be given in this instance is also an important factor to consider. Historic police data sets and current Algorithmic policing technologies are under the control of the police; thus, who will monitor the department of police and how federal, regional, or provisional governments will limit the role of the police is also a serious matter of discussion.


Conclusion and Potential Areas for Improvement or Future Research

Public information is not shared regarding Algorithmic matters. The policing technologies used by law enforcement agencies are, however, the other applications of this policy have not been explored yet. It can also be used in other matters of life; however, those matters are not considered yet. Moreover, the statistics related to dark net websites and location-based services have not been discussed yet. The information must be publicized so that the people may know that life has been revolutionized by Algorithmic policing now. No public data is available in this instance[6]



Arrigo, Bruce A., Brian G. Sellers, and Faith Butta. "Introduction: The Ultramodern Age of Criminology, Control Societies and 'Dividual' Justice Policy." The Pre-Crime Society, 2021, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781529205251.003.0001.

CHRC. "Annual Report - Algorithms in policing." (2021). https://2021.chrcreport.ca/algorithms-in-policing.html.

Humphry, Justine. "Policing Homelessness: Smart Cities and Algorithmic Governance." Homelessness and Mobile Communication, 2022, 151–81.

"Kate Robertson, Cynthia Khoo, Yolanda Song, "To Surveil and Predict: A Human Rights Analysis of Algorithmic Policing in Canada [2020 C4EJ 67]." C4E Journal, October 10, 2020. https://c4ejournal.net/2020/10/06/kate-robertson-cynthia-khoo-yolanda-song-to-surveil-and-predict-a-human-rights-analysis-of-algorithmic-policing-in-canada-2020-c4ej-67/.

Kenyon, Miles. "Algorithmic Policing in Canada Explained". 2020. Algorithmic Policing in Canada Explained - The Citizen Lab

Marina, Peter, and Pedro Marina. "Police, Power, Agency, and Human Rights." Human Rights Policing, 2022, 36–59. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003220282-4.

Pekic, Alexander. "Toronto the Good? the Access T.O. Policy - Making Toronto a Sanctuary City," 2021. https://doi.org/10.32920/ryerson.14660754.v1.

Singh, Shawn. "Algorithmic Policing Technologies in Canada". Manitoba law journal. 44,6. 2021.

[1] Humphry, Justine. “Policing Homelessness: Smart Cities and Algorithmic Governance.” Homelessness and Mobile Communication, 2022, 151–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-3838-2_6. 1



[2] Pekic, Alexander. “Toronto the Good? the Access T.O. Policy - Making Toronto a Sanctuary City,” 2021. https://doi.org/10.32920/ryerson.14660754.v1. 1.


[3] Kate Robertson, Cynthia Khoo, Yolanda Song, “To Surveil and Predict: A Human Rights Analysis of Algorithmic Policing in Canada [2020 C4EJ 67].” C4E Journal, October 10, 2020. https://c4ejournal.net/2020/10/06/kate-robertson-cynthia-khoo-yolanda-song-to-surveil-and-predict-a-human-rights-analysis-of-algorithmic-policing-in-canada-2020-c4ej-67/.


[4] Kenyon, Miles. “Algorithmic Policing in Canada Explained”. 2020. Algorithmic Policing in Canada Explained - The Citizen Lab. 1

[5] Peter Marina and Pedro Marina, “Police, Power, Agency, and Human Rights,” Human Rights Policing, 2022, pp. 36-59, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003220282-4. 47.

[6] Singh, Shawn. “Algorithmic Policing Technologies in Canada”. Manitoba law journal. 44,6. 2021.1.




Table of Contents
1.1 Background 2
1.2 Company Description 2
1.3 Problem statement 2
1.4 1.4 Research question 3
1.5 1.5 Organization of report 3
2 References 4

1.1 Background
This study, which was conducted as part of a Business Research 2 class at Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, examines the factors that led to Netflix's significant decline in revenue as well as the company's decision to let go of some of its employees as a result of this decline. We were given a collection of five different case studies to select from, and we were instructed to choose one of them to utilize as a springboard for a more in-depth inquiry into the issue, its roots, and any potential solutions.
1.2 Company description
Netflix, Inc. is a production company and internet streaming service based in Los Gatos, California. Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph founded Netflix, Inc. in Scotts Valley, California in 1997. Through distribution agreements and Netflix Originals, it gives its users access to a collection of movies and television series (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). The global firm provides users with access to streaming media, DVDs, and television shows on demand through the internet. Specifically, Netflix enables users to make full use of the internet to view an almost infinite library of television series and motion pictures (Evens, et al., 2021). In addition, the business has its own movie collection that subscribers may access and see instantaneously on their computers. Over 93 million people across 190 countries are Netflix members (Widia, et al., 2021). The firm is now the largest provider of internet television services worldwide, with operations in over 193 countries.
1.3 Problem statement
According to BBC News (2022), Netflix announced another round of layoffs at the beginning of this year as the firm continues to struggle with poor growth and increasing competition. Following the layoff of 150 employees in May, the streaming powerhouse said in June that it would lay off another 300 employees (about 4% of the workforce), mostly in the United States (Widia, et al., 2021). This comes after the company reported its first loss in subscribers in more than a decade in April. In order to grow, the firm is contemplating introducing a freemium version supported by adverts and is restricting password sharing. Netflix said it would continue to spend aggressively in the company and has implemented these steps to align expenditure growth with slower revenue growth. The corporation also said it will continue to hire in other sectors. With 220 million members, Netflix is the market leader in streaming, but it has faced fierce competition in recent years from the likes of Disney Plus and Amazon Prime Video (Meng, et al., 2022). In addition to losing customers, the company has recently enacted a series of price increases in the United States, the United Kingdom, and across the world.
Following a 200,000 decline earlier this year, the business expects another two million subscriber losses in the three months ending in July. Even in the United States, where overall streaming subscriptions have stayed steady (unlike in the United Kingdom), Kantar research firm polls consistently mention cost savings as the most prevalent reason for canceling streaming services (kantar, 2020).
1.4 1.4 Research question
1. Why Netflix is suffering from financial difficulties and firing employees?
1.5 1.5 Organization of report
The following is an overview of some of the chapters that will be covered in the next three chapters that are all connected to Netflix:
In chapter two, we will lay out the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that are necessary to answer the research question that was posed in chapter 1.4 of this report. Additionally, we will provide summaries of two articles that separately address this instance and issue.
The third chapter will provide a descriptive analysis of the variables that were used in the study, as well as the findings and theoretical implications of that analysis. Finally, the conclusion chapter will provide an overview of the data and how it connects to the research question and problem statement, as well as describe the key findings of the article and examine the issue that was brought up in the first chapter.

2 References
BBCNews, 2022. Netflix cuts 300 more jobs after subscriptions fall. [Online]
Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-61914167
[Accessed eo JUNE 2022].
Evens, T., Henderickx, A. & De Marez, L., 2021. Generation stream: the audiovisual repertoire of teenagers. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 65(2), pp. 185-204.
kantar, 2020. Netflix is winning the video streaming wars. [Online]
Available at: https://www..com/north-america/inspiration/tv/netflix-is-winning-the-video-streaming-wars
[Accessed 04 March 2020].
Lobato, R. & Lotz, A., 2020. Imagining global video: The challenge of Netflix.. JCMS: Journal of Cinema and Media Studies, 59(3), pp. 132-136.
Meng, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y. & Zhou, W., 2022. An Assessment about the Business and Profitability Analysis for Netflix. In 2022 2nd International Conference on Enterprise Management and Economic Development (ICEMED 2022, pp. 467-477.
Widia, F., Rosanensi, M. & Rahmawati, L., 2021. Netflix's Strategy to Dominate the World's Entertainment Media Market After the Death of Blockbuster. JBTI: Jurnal Bisnis: Teori dan Implementasi, , 12(3), pp. 155-171.
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Global Water Crisis-


Currently, while the need for water has been acknowledged, it is far from completion as the constant struggle for water availability and quality plagues the various regions in the world. This is not only limited to the drinking water as the water availability for the various other household and sanitation needs are also evident in many parts of the world. The essay covers the various issues with unsafe water management practices and their common solution and proposes a new and innovative solution for achieving the goals of the population. The first issue being discussed is the unsafe water inadequate sanitation and insufficient hygiene. The common solution presented for this issue is based on stopping malpractices like dumping chemicals and waste in the water bodies and the investment in sanitation and awareness campaigns to raise the knowledge of the population regarding best practices (Abbott et al., 2019). The second issue considered is the release of untreated wastewater in the environment whereas the solution provided is based on the protection of the natural resources from the release of contaminants in nature. The final issue addressed in the essay is based on water scarcity which is a major issue affecting up to 40% of the global population (Cummings, 2017). The solution proposed for this is based on the restoration of the ecosystems to ensure the availability of safe water. However, along with the common solutions mentioned, the essay also explores two new and innovative solutions for each of the issues mentioned. This is covered in the essay with support from the extant literature which is used to propose innovative solutions for the common issues related to water.


The global water crisis has been recognized as one of the major problems facing human society as the issues such as pollution, unsafe drinking water and scarcity of water are affecting human development and health in numerous regions across the world. Aside from the drinking water, the water used for cooking, bathing and other daily household activities are also essential for human development and proper hygiene. This not only ensures the health and wellbeing of the population but also ensures their growth as a collective. However, currently, more than 844milion people lack access to clean water which is resulting in generational poverty and health issues (Byker et al., 2019). There is little that can be done for geographical barriers to water availability but the issues like the overconsumption of water and pollution can be addressed by proper water management practices. Not only does this address the problem facing a significant part of the human population but also prevents the issue from getting worse. There are many reasons for the global water issues like pollution and malpractices like releasing contaminants in the local water bodies without any treatment. However, there are many solutions that can be used for addressing the specific issues causing the water issues on a global scale.

Unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and insufficient hygiene

Contaminated water is the cause of sickness of 1 billion people each year and in the year 2015 alone, water pollution has caused the deaths of more than 1.8 million people globally. Both virus and disease-causing bacteria are responsible for the unsafe status which is mainly transmitted through ingestion of the unsafe water. Many waterborne diseases like typhoid, giardia and cholera are major causes of mortality and morbidity across various regions across the world. The lack of filtration facilities for both groundwater and other water sources are also responsible for the diseases caused by the unsafe water. The biological contaminants are not the only cause for concern as heavy metals like mercury and arsenic are naturally occurring contaminants that cause the water to be unsafe for consumption (Kammeyer, Hamilton & Morrison, 2020). The unsafe drinking water, lack of proper hygiene and inadequate sanitation are therefore responsible for the death of millions while common issues like skin rash, pinkeye and hepatitis are accompanied by other issues such as cancer, hormone disruption and alteration of brain functions in some cases.

The main solution proposed for the issue is based on stopping the dumping of chemicals and waste into the natural sources of water and the investment and sanitation along with rising awareness of the population regarding the necessity for proper water management practices. The proper management of the depositing o the pollutants in the water bodies are a major factor in this initiative as this is one of the main sources of contamination for the drinking water and water used for other household purposes (Pearce, 2018). The overall understanding of the malpractices and their long-term impact is just as necessary as the knowledge of the proper ways of filtration and disposal of pollutants. This makes the awareness campaigns to educate the populace about the best practices a major factor for preventing water pollution. Proper sanitation is also an essential aspect of water management as sewage contamination is also responsible for the spoiling of the various natural sources of water in the rural regions which lead to disease and widespread contamination. Therefore, proper sewage infrastructure is another solution that can be used for the benefit of the populace.

One innovative solution for the problem is the availability of cheap and efficient filtration devices that can be used to separate the contaminants from the drinking water. There have been several initiatives where enterprising individuals invested devices that could be used by the people to filter their water collected from natural sources to ensure their health which serves the purpose of ensuring a supply of clean and safe drinking water for the people. However, these efforts are mostly localized and there has been no large-scale implementation making their effect very limited for the global water crisis (Kammeyer, Hamilton & Morrison, 2020). Not only are these initiatives limited to the specific contamination issues faced in different regions but there is also the lack of knowledge making these lack popularity which is affecting the development of this solution to its fullest potential. Therefore, not only is there a clear need for further development in this area but there is a need for publicizing the development to the various government bodies so that they can be implemented on a more large-scale basis making the more effective in terms of global impact.


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Urbanization and Globalization


Urbanization and Globalization

Urbanization and globalization are two issues which are dominating the world panorama on a large and extended scale and are considered as the vital forces which operate as the crucial factors behind the developments and modernizations taking place in the entire world. Globalization is characterized as the free flowing tendency of the various cultures from all over the world along with tradition, trade and investments and services from all over the world. In globalization, the various features of different countries of the world intermingle with each other to give a new definition to culture, trade, traditions, etc (Gubler, 2011). For example, the trade practices of Rome, Greek, and Egyptian cultures mixed together in order to give trade as a whole a different and developed format. In the same way, the western trade flourished because of the existence and presence of the striking features of the developed western culture. Asian countries on the other hand, were prominent regarding their cultural variants give a prominent look to the other cultures in order to make them feel involved in the entire process. It is therefore an amalgamation of various trades and cultures and essentially deals with their development and enhancement. Urbanization is considered or is defined as the modernization of the rural sectors and those provinces which are not so developed in the terms of industrialization, trade and transport, living conditions, health and hygiene, and education. Urbanization deals with factors such as growth in income, reduction of poverty, easy and convenient access to various services such as electricity, telephone and communication, education, water, sanitation and health. Urbanization as what we see today, which is widespread in its extent and impact, is a phenomenon which can be efficiently characterized as an important outcome of the twenty first century. 

Free trade which can be practiced globally, one chief effect of globalization is the curbing or in the reduction and even vanishing of the factor of distance in trade. Also, the prices of several products have got almost equalized throughout the world, helping the developing and the underdeveloped nations get their basic essentials at affordable rates (Leitão & Shahbaz, 2013). Further, globalization has been the cause of development brought in many urban sectors, as a result of which, the correlation and inter relation between globalization and urbanization.



Although the effects of globalization can be realized to a very limited extent, those of urbanization makes us feel and realize a true fact that when we get connected to each other, there can be the creation and generation of a great extent of power which is crucial and important in the development of the entire world panorama in every possible aspect and terms. Today the term globalization has taken the form of a common buzzword which is availed and accepted by every status of people as per their needs, requirements, and capabilities (Giddens et al., 2016). It has been given a widely accepted importance which has the power and potential to bring an all round development for the individuals throughout the world. A collaboration of globalization and urbanization have given rise to a large number of beneficial aspects which include raising of the income levels, which in turn have a transforming effect on the trends of consumption which is a surprising and unexpected result. Urbanization consists of developed economies which are in turn greatly affected by the changes in the relationships which are the outcome of globalization. However, among all these factors, which have been successful in removing the differences between several aspects of international relationships as a whole, most striking advancement and change has been witnessed in the enhancement of the local development process (Brahmasrene & Lee, 2017). Regarding the understanding and examining the processes of local development, and local economic development, a lot of studies and researches made on the issues of and relating to the various branches and related aspects of economics, geography, regional science, and many more. In this regard, the role played by clusters and firms in the process of local development again a special position and reference. This issue has not only received much importance and acclamation, but has been subjected to a lot if criticism as well. The clustering or establishment of firms is an economic phenomenon which has the potential to serve as the chief driving force for local development.  As a result of globalization, a flourished network between corporations, urban sectors, and firms have been developed giving birth to an entirely new concept of ‘alliance capitalism’.


The concepts of urbanization or clustering have become very popular term and acquire a fashionable outlook when get connected with the term globalization. This has in turn given ample development to the urban sectors which have attained the position of ‘industrial districts’ (Lee et al., 2017). These clusters or industrial districts perform a great deal in fundamentally performing every act so as to ensure economic success for every locality in the global arena. Many policies have been framed so as to regulate a desirable development and momentum to every aspect which is jointly related to the issues of globalization and urbanization.





Gubler, D. J. (2011). Dengue, urbanization and globalization: the unholy trinity of the 21st century. Tropical medicine and health, 39(4SUPPLEMENT), S3-S11.

Leitão, N. C., & Shahbaz, M. (2013). Carbon dioxide emissions, urbanization and globalization: a dynamic panel data. Economic Research Guardian, 3(1), 22.

Brahmasrene, T., & Lee, J. W. (2017). Assessing the dynamic impact of tourism, industrialization, urbanization, and globalization on growth and environment in Southeast Asia. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 24(4), 362-371.

Lee, W. C., Cheong, T. S., & Wu, Y. (2017). The Impacts of Financial Development, Urbanization, and Globalization on Income Inequality: A Regression-based Decomposition Approach.

Giddens, A., Duneier, M., Appelbaum, R. P., & Carr, D. S. (2016). Introduction to sociology. WW Norton.




Food Wastage- MLA format

                                                Food Wastage

The food wastage is not only a humanitarian issue as the wasted food has a pervasive impact on the environment of the region. The food wastage can have more serious implications that a purely economic analysis of the issue fails to encompass as aside from the sociological issue of people without access to food, the resources wasted in growing, transporting and processing are portents of significant environmental problems. The effects are all distinct and when considered individually, they are less significant. However, if the effects like the water used in growing the wasted food and the greenhouse gas emission from the disposed of rotting foodstuff are considered the implications of the issue become a dominant problem (Venkat, 435). It might be argued that the issue requires significantly more attention because of the difference was the food wastage affects the society and environment. As the issue is prevalent in the developed nations which are making significant headway in both environmental protection and the social justice this seems like a topic that can be used to significantly improve the overall effects of the issue. In this exercise, the United States is considered for the explorations this country is not only the largest in terms of the food wastage volume but also with the technological and economic wherewithal to address the potential impacts caused by the issue.



A report in the Guardian suggested that the average American household wastes 1 pound of food per person per day which is mostly fruits and vegetables that amount to a national equivalent of 150000tons of food being wasted each day across the country (Milman).  The statistics also indicate that the fresh food that spoils more easily like vegetables, fruit, dairy and meat are the most wasteful in this regard. The annual volume of wasted food items amounts up to 60 million tons that are evaluated to cost $160 billion. This is a significant loss because the consumption and wastage are distributed unevenly across the population leading to many going hungry while the rest waste this massive amount of food every day. The data from the US Department of Agriculture also further cements the significance of the loss as the wasted food volume is equated with 30m acres of cropland, 780m pounds of pesticide and 4.2tn gallons of irrigated water being used unnecessarily to produce food that is ultimately destined for landfills (Mu 482).

On that note, the wasted food contributes to 21% of the volume of the landfills which only ends up producing the greenhouse gas methane to negatively affect the pollution, climate and exacerbates the global warming issue. The pollutions caused by food wasted in the US alone is equivalent to 39 million passenger vehicles that drive home the significance of the issue form the environmental perspective. The issue should be considered a priority based solely on the environmental impact, but this is only part of the impact of food waste as the sociological impact of the food waste is also significant (Milman). While some people going without adequate food while the rest are wasting the inordinate amount of the same is the portent of a social imbalance, this also indicates a potential solution for the issue that is being ignored. Therefore, the fact that over 40% of the food produced in the US is wasted, which is significantly higher the global average, indicates that the issue needs further attention marking this exploration as a worthwhile initiative to understand the extent of the problem to devise proper solutions. 

The food waste is no doubt a major issue in the US according to the statistics, but the causation of the issue is unclear with diverse food consumption and wastage trends across the society. Even without considering the factor of social injustice, the food waste is caused by a range of factors including the choice of the consumption trends of the population that makes it hard to facilitate any universal method for minimising the wastage of food items across the board (Lansing107).  For example, the people who consume more fresh fruits and vegetable in pursuit of healthy lifestyle contribute more to the food waste issue as their consumption’s habits lead to large amounts of fruits and vegetables being thrown out after their freshness is compromised.

Moreover, as the fruits and vegetables have a lower shelf life than other processed foods, they are thrown out more frequently than other food items. Form an ecological perspective, while fruits and vegetables take less cropland, they require significantly more water, fertilisers and pesticides making this higher in terms of environmental resources cost (Zepeda and Balaine 631). As the freshness is essential to the marketability of the produce the transport cost is significantly higher which also contributed to the impact of the wasted food.

According to Qi and Brian, the main cause of the issue of food waste escalating over time is the lack of awareness of the consumers about the cost of wasted food form both environmental and sociological perspectives. The cost of food which is the main factor considered by the consumers wasting food is only minimally important in light of the significance of the issue. More often than not, the consumers associate their trends of food consumptions with only the most basic of views which make them biased against the other food groups. For example, the vegans often see meat as more wasteful produce in terms of the resources required growing but they completely ignore the water and other resources required to produce and transport fresh produce that contributed equally to the negative effects of food waste. The cost of storage and transport is often ignored while considering the cost of wasted food among the general population which makes the information disjointed resulting in lack of perception about the true cost of wasted food in each household across the socioeconomic spectrum (Zepeda and Balaine 634). The modern, fast-paced lifestyles of the Americans are also a significant factor in the issue as the time to prepare and preserve food is often considered unnecessary that increases the issue by some degree.

The households of the US are not the only source of wasted food as the various parties from the farmers to sellers all contribute to the issue to a significant degree. The department of agriculture indicates that about 40% of the food processing industry wastes food based on cosmetic imperfections (Warshawsky 389). This is also done in the supermarkets who only sell the perfectly formed fruits and vegetable and the rest are wasted without the consumers being aware of the fact. “Ugly” Fruit and Veg Campaign is an initiative that focuses solely on the food wasted based on cosmetic imperfection across the various levels of the food processing industry (Henson). Majority of the supermarket chains operating the US grocery sector are therefore guilty of increasing the wastage of food due to their policies which do not prevent food waste to a satisfactory degree (Thyberg and Tonjes 118). This not based on financial profitability as the major stores like the Aldi, Target and Trader Joe’s all have inadequate protection against food wastage.

Furthermore, these policies are endorsed if the wasted food is donated to various organizations making this initiative faulty and inadequate in terms of reducing food wastage and building awareness against food wastage. The inadequate or malpractices are another cause of food wastage that occurs across all levels of the industry in agro products. For example, the packaging can be used to considerably increase the shelf life of the fresh produce but is often not employed because of the extra effort necessary in using this as common practice. From cucumbers to beef, all agricultural produce lasts several days to weeks longer if they are packaged in plastic. Beef wrapped and vacuum-sealed in plastic lasts 26 days longer, while bananas last 21 days longer if the same packaging method is used (Heller 485-486). This is an effective solution to the food waste issue as the countries like Germany where over 60% of the food sold is packaged appropriately for maximising shelf life has a much lower degree of food wastage (Lansing 110).

There is also the issue of environmental footprint which is increased by using plastic in packaging, but other alternative materials increase transport cost making this the most effective solution for addressing the food waste issue (Huang 25). The policies used in food sorting can also be modified for decreasing wastage of food by finding alternative usage for items that ad deemed unsellable. However, there is also a list of barriers affecting the food waste issue like economic feasibility which is often at odds with environmental impacts.

Thus, the current statistics indicate that the US is one of the most wasteful nations when it comes to food waste. The lack of awareness of the population’s regarding the significance of the issue and endorsement of the harmful practices further increase the impact of the issue from both social and environmental perspectives. The need to balance the various areas of impact is also a significant cause of concern as the plastic packing-which is a major source of pollutions helps decrease food waste by a high degree. Therefore the need for strict best practices guideline across all stages of the food industry is required to address the issue in the US along with the programs to increase the awareness of the consumers regarding the significance of the numerous impacts of the food waste.

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Coronavirus Cases- Top 3

Last Updated: 23 HOURS FOR CASES


Coronavirus Cases: Top 3

USA = 295,607 Cases 2,988 Deaths 5,644 Recovered

Italy = 128,991 Cases 11,660 Deaths 14,620 Recovered

Spain = 103,956 Cases 7,716 Deaths 16,780 Recovered

What is happening in the world. It is taking over half of the world's population. Coronavirus all started by Chinese people eating/drinking bat soup. Scientists say that Coronavirus has a bigger death toll than any other virus such as SARS and MERS. Coronavirus all started in Wuhan, China. The reason they named coronavirus quicker was called COVID-19. COVID-19 was represented as (Coronavirus-2019). That meant, the virus started in December 2019. In total, Coronavirus has more than 780,043 cases altogether and 37,649 deaths. Though only 168,787 people have been recovered. The United States by itself has 161,145 cases and 2,982 deaths. Out of those 161,145 cases, only 5,604 have been recovered. Canada has 7,427 cases and 86 deaths. Canada is doing a good job of handling. The USA has completely gotten out of control. The USA is on the top first today in cases. Coronavirus all started in China, but now they have settled down and have no more increasing cases over the past few days. China has created vaccines and is being used to keep the number of deaths and cases from happening. China is in Top 4th. The only way kids can prevent this from happening is by drinking a lot of warm water and washing their hands frequently. The kids should be forced to wash their hands with soap and warm water. With warm water and soap, it takes all the bacteria away and keeps your hand clean for a while. Also, kids can prevent getting coronavirus is practicing social distancing and not picking random items from the ground outside. More than 3,000 kids/teens have coronavirus. Trump is taking vaccines from China to help his own country for decreasing the population. This might be a hard time of the year but we all gotta survive with it.

We all know that COVID-19 is about to reach 1m cases and 50K deaths. Trump is taking vaccines from China to help his own country for decreasing the population. Trudeau closed all playgrounds and dog parks to help social distancing because people are not listening to him and is creating stress for people that do care. Most parents let their kids go outside even though they know there are over 7,500 cases. Out of the 7500 cases, 2500 of them are from Ontario. In the waterloo region, there are 103 cases. We should not be going to parties and thinking nothing will happen. Trudeau has made a new rule that in Ontario, there cannot be more than 5 people in a house. If someone reports that there are over 5 people in a house, the people that are not following the laws could be fined over $1000. There are no more rooms in hospitals for anyone who gets sick. The Ontario government is renting hotels to keep for extra beds. More than 20 hotels have been rented by the Ontario government. In British Columbia, there are over 5000 cases and over 30 Deaths. The B.C. provincial government said that only two people are allowed to stay in a house. In total, there are 818,479 deaths and cases together.


Hamlet’s dead father and Claudius, his brother- Style: MLA- Level College

Hamlet by William Shakespeare portrays a clear picture of noble and wicked personalities by presenting Hamlet’s father and his brother Claudius. The roles played by Hamlet's father the king and Claudius his brother has led to the contrast between each of their traits that resemble the characteristics. In the tragedy of Hamlet, the two kings are contrasted by establishing the idea about the presence of a clean-minded individual within a dirty and a greedy world that aims to get power by hook or by crook. The notable adjectives like a clean, innocent and fair individual are contrasted with unfair, corrupt and unjust. Such adjectives stating the contrast of the two Kings are clear from the lines in act three stating the confrontation of Gertrude with her son.
          The comparison  of characters within the tragedy Hamlet is very much vital for analysis to understand the role of both the characters. The analysis establishes a way of contrast between the characters called Claudius and King Hamlet who are brothers of each other. Such an analysis has led to the examination of nature and the characteristics in between the two characters. William Shakespeare has placed the nature of a just person in an unjust world to establish a contrast between the two. The actual King Hamlet in the play has been regarded as a fair individual existing in a dirty situation and he perceives that the title of the king means that a person is the representative of the almighty. The words just, fair and innocent has been placed after the name of king Hamlet or Hamlet’s father.
Throughout the play, Shakespeare has shown disparity by conveying the nature of gracefulness within a person who had authority. Using such characteristics, he has a place, King Hamlet, as a character of the play. In one of the scenes, Hamlet's father the king is told as a man in whom “every god did set his seal” and as when the author says “ So excellent a king, that was to this Hyperion to a satyr, so loving to my mother” ( Shakespeare, 11). William Shakespeare has pointed out the nature of a fair mountain and explained the character of Hamlet’s father or the actual king. In the play, the planets have been picked up and like Mars and Mercury to describe the character of Hamlet's father. This is clear from the lines spoken by young Hamlet stating that "Hyperion's curls; the front of Jove himself; an eye like Mars, to threaten and command; A station like a herald mercury" (Shakespeare, 18).
Besides, Hamlet's father has been considered as a man of sacrifice who has loved his wife the queen, Gertrude, for the entire of his life and even after death. Words like love and concern have been used to depict Hamlet's father's love towards his mother or the queen. Shakespeare has told about such characteristics of the King from the mouth of the son or the actual heir to the throne after the King Hamlet's death that converses with his mother Gertrude and tells that “Look here, upon the picture, and on this, The counterfeit presentment of two brothers, See what a grace was seated on the brow. He weeps for what is done”
(Shakespeare, 89). These lines tell about the nature of the actual king of Hamlet who has been assassinated by his brother Claudius. Using these lines spoken from by the King's son, Shakespeare has depicted the fairness and tenderness of the actual king of Hamlet. Through these William Shakespeare has contrasted the two kings the actual King of Hamlet and King Claudius.
Whereas King Claudius has been represented as corrupt and bloodthirst king to get the power or the kingly title. After describing King Hamlet’s characteristics, the author has used the mouth of the younger King Hamlet and conveyed the characteristics of King Claudius.  Within the entire play, King Claudius has been regarded as the traitor and corrupt king which are just the opposite extremes of the characteristics possessed by Hamlet's father or the actual king. King Claudius has been considered as "like mildew’d ear" (Kerrigan, 238). 
Furthermore, Shakespeare has conveyed the nature of Claudius and contrasted it with the actual king within the later lines which are conveyed to Gertrude. Young Hamlet expressed “Claudius as a murderer and villain; A slave that is not twentieth part the tithe. Before it opens Claudius and the Queen have been guilty of adultery and Claudius alone of murder” (Shakespeare, 266). Using these lines, the actual king has been contrasted with Claudius and William Shakespeare has contrasted the characters with some magical words that depict the character of Claudius. Shakespeare has used the word thief to describe the character Claudius and tells that King Claudius is a thief who has stolen the power by foul means. Using this opposite adjective of fair and innocent the author has exhibited and contrasted the character, King Claudius.
In every part, the activities of King Claudius has been criticized and disregarded by the younger king Hamlet. “From the very beginning Claudius believes, and naturally too, that Hamlet alone is the sole obstacle in his way, and that, Hamlet alone is dangerous” (Shakespeare, 313). In the many parts of the scene, it is seen that the adjectives of King Claudius are just the opposite of the actual king of Hamlet and the uncle of young Hamlet or King Claudius has been regarded as convening or duplicitous man who has used the companions of Hamlet to kill him. Claudius is generally, a cunning man in every part of the play and the two kings are contrasted with each other through the establishment of kindness, love, innocence and dirty-minded, cunning, wild, and corrupt.
Thus, Hamlet, the tragedy is a connection of characters those posses two distinct characteristics that are opposite's extremes of each other. Shakespeare has used the words of the younger King Hamlet to convey and establish a contrast between two characters namely the actual king and King Claudius. The lines spoken by Hamlet about his father and uncle lay down a contrast of roles played by King Claudius and the actual king.


Works Cited
Kerrigan, William. Hamlet's Perfection. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Sixth Edition. J.B Lippincott Company. 2001.

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