Answers:
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1. 
Thinking can BEST be defined as:

the process that precedes language.
a unique human capacity to analyze external stimuli and apply internal knowledge.
using your brain to process external information.
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the processing of information to solve problems and make judgments and decisions.

 

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2. 
The tendency to use _____ problem-solving strategies without considering others that are more appropriate for the current problem is called _____.

meaningful; anchoring
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previously successful; mental set
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functional; fixation
new; mental set




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3. 
Solving the “matchstick problem” frequently results from _____, the rapid understanding of the problem's solution.

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induction
deduction
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insight
serendipity




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4. 
The formula “two parts oil to one part vinegar” is guaranteed to yield decent oil-and-vinegar salad dressing. In problem-solving terms, this recipe is a(n):

mental set.
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schema.
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algorithm.
heuristic.


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5. 
In our everyday lives, we use subjective hypothesis testing on a regular basis. This fact may account, in part, for the prevalence of beliefs in:

aspirin to reduce the risk of stroke.
love.
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paranormal phenomena.
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the benefits of exercise.




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6. 
Although it is typically a successful strategy for making probability judgments, the use of _____ can lead to errors, especially if it causes one to ignore relevant information.

insight
random guessing
algorithms
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heuristics

 

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7. 
Sonya was confronted with research findings demonstrating that long-term smoking is associated with health problems. She denied this fact and responded, “My grandfather smoked three packs a day for 40 years and never had any problems.” This demonstrates:

use of the representativeness heuristic.
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person-who reasoning.
the gambler's fallacy.
illusory correlation.

 

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8. 
David Wechsler believed in the importance of _____ on intelligence. As a result of his interest in broader assessments of intelligence that included nonverbal performance tests, he developed the _____ as alternatives to the Stanford-Binet test.

environment; WAMP and WIMP
heredity; WAMP and WIMP
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environment; WAIS and WISC
heredity; WAIS and WISC




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9. 
For a test to be _____, it must be _____. The reverse _____ true.

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valid; reliable; is
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valid; reliable; is not
reliable; valid; is
reliable; valid; is not




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10. 
An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time Paul takes it. Based on this information, the test is:

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reliable but definitely not valid.
reliable and potentially valid.
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not reliable and definitely not valid.
not reliable but possibly valid.



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