1. Who is credited for the identification of operant conditioning?


Ivan Pavlov


B.F. Skinner


John Watson


Robert Sternberg



2. In operant conditioning, when a behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases that behavior, the stimulus is called a(n):


reinforcer.


action.


punisher.


response.



3. Which type of stimulus following a behavior removes something that is unpleasant?


positive punisher


negative punisher


negative reinforcer


positive reinforcer



4. The expected outcome when a behavior is followed by a reinforcer is that the behavior:


is not likely to be repeated.


will cause excitement in the animal.


will cause regret in the animal.


is likely to be repeated.



5. Tammy is potty training her two-year-old daughter. Every time her daughter sits on the potty, Tammy gives her one cookie. What is the reinforcer?


the mother


sitting on the potty


the potty itself


the cookie



6. Margaret gives her teenagers five dollars for each grade of an A on their report card. This monetary stimulus is a:


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


negative punisher.


positive punisher.



7. Deedra gives her dog a treat every time he urinates outside. In this example, the treat is a:


negative punisher.


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


positive punisher.



8. Learning occurs rapidly with a _____ schedule of reinforcement.


variable-ratio


variable-interval


continuous


fixed-ratio



9. When a reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a set period of time has elapsed, which reinforcement schedule is being used?


variable-ratio


fixed-interval


variable-interval


fixed-ratio



10. A _____ reinforcement schedule gives the reinforcer for the first response that occurs after a varying period of time has elapsed.


variable-interval


variable-ratio


fixed-interval


fixed-ratio



11. Which type of stimulus following a behavior provides a reward for that behavior?


negative reinforcer


negative punisher


positive punisher


positive reinforcer



12. Every time Stacey puts the keys in her car's ignition the car begins to make a ding sound until she buckles her seat belt. What is the reinforcer?


the buckle


the ding sound


Stacey


the car ignition



13. Jennifer has a sunburn and applies ointment cream for relief. In this example the ointment cream is a:


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


positive punisher.


negative punisher.



14. Preston came home after his curfew. His parents grounded him for a week, taking away his phone and not allowing him to go anywhere after school. In this example, the act of grounding is a:


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.


negative punisher.


positive punisher.



15. With a _____ schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcer is given after a set number of responses.


continuous


variable-ratio


fixed-ratio


variable-interval



16. A _____ reinforcement schedule gives the reinforcer after a varying number of responses.


variable-interval


fixed-ratio


variable-ratio


fixed-interval



17. Learning that occurs due to _____ extinguishes slowly.


interval reinforcement


partial reinforcement


continuous reinforcement


variable reinforcement



18. B.F. Skinner believed that behavior:


is learned through modeling.


should be followed by punishment.


is controlled by consequences.


is naturally learned by watching others.



19. Markus has put off doing his homework so that he can play video games. His mother starts nagging him to do his homework. Markus turns off the video game and does his homework to stop his mother from nagging. In this example, the nagging is a:


negative punisher.


positive punisher.


negative reinforcer.


positive reinforcer.



20. With a _____ schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcer is given after every instance of a desired behavior.


fixed-ratio


variable-ratio


continuous


variable-interval






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