Women In Politics

It is quite common that parliament and other political institutions across different countries are being controlled and monitored by majority of male members. It is quite rare to experience that the majority of the parliament members within a country are female. However, it has been identified in Canada in the year 2015 that a cabinet has been constructed by 50 percent of women out of entire cabinet members. In the year 2015, Justin Trudeau, The Prime Minister decided that the cabinet will be developed by majority of women members and it has been discovered that 50 percent of entire cabinet members are women and this is also important to mention that only 30 percent of the female Liberal Member of parliaments were elected in the year. It also can be introduced that 26 percent of entire members of parliament were women in the year 2015 and they were 88 in number. However, similar type of incident was happened in the year 2011, where 25 percent of the all the members of parliament were women.
The current paper will discuss why the females are under-represented consistently in the house of provincial legislatures. Moreover, this essay will also determine the possible obstacles or barriers to the election campaign of more number of female Member of Parliament. Lastly, the paper will suggest and recommend some valuable political system reformation approach, which will encourage more number of women in the politics. The paper will also focus on three developed issues regarding participation of women in political campaigns in Canada.

Under-Representation of Women

Canada is a developing nation with open social structure in which women enjoy valuable freedom. However, doing job and campaigning in an election event are two different things. An individual needs to focus on three important aspects to get elected as a public leaders, such as the individuals should select themselves, the candidates of a party should selected the individuals and lastly the common voters of a region should select the individuals as their leaders (Cool, 2013, p.3). However, there are several reasons behind the under representation of women, which are discussed below.
First of all, majority of women or females feel comfortable to handle domestic responsibilities as they are oriented with such things from their childhood. Most importantly, the social structure and family orientation encourages them to get busy with domestic responsibilities after a certain age. Apart from these things, it is identical that healthy numbers of female members within the Canadian society prefer professional careers to enjoy freedom and maintain self-respect as well as self-dependency. Hence, this will be determined as the lack of family support; inadequate social orientation and mindset of the women force them not to get involved with the political activities (Virgint, 2016, p.2).
There are other reasons too behind the under-representation of women. It is the common orientation of voters and the active party members to see the men as the potential candidates. However, this particular scenario is changing slowly and steadily. In several developing and the developed nations, women are being nominated as electoral candidates. Similar kind of approach is being identified in Canada as since the year 2006, the percentage of female electoral candidates is increasing at a significant rate. There are four major political parties in Canada (Cool, 2013, p.4). Hence, the voters as well as party members of the four parties have number of female candidates are increasing in all the four parties. Despite the growth rate in percentage, Canada ranks 62 in terms of number and influence of women power in country’s political structure. Being a developing country, this particular figure cannot be acceptable as it is not impressive. Hence, it can be accepted that Canada is a male dominating country considering the country’s political orientation and structure.
In terms of success or failure, it can be accepted that 76 women candidates have been elected as the Member of Parliament in the year 2011. This figure, volume, number and percentage has been improved in the year 2015. The success rate was slightly lower comparing to the male candidates. The election commission or the political parties’ do not have particular quota or empowerment system, guideline or regulation system regarding the nomination of female members (Cool, 2013, p.5). Hence, it is clear that women candidates are not impressively successful, but gaining slow growth rate. It may change rapidly in near future considering women empowerment and social reformation approaches. 

Obstacles or barriers to the Election of More Female MPs

It is clear from the previous section that women are finding it difficult to get nominated as electoral candidates. Moreover, the four major political parties in Canada are more male centric as they have belief that male candidates have better leadership skills and controlling aspects comparing to the women candidates.
However, lower level of the political engagement of women are challenging for three important reasons, such as individual level barriers, social barriers and political barriers. First of all, females are oriented as the underrepresented group from the historical ages. Moreover, this is also essential to discuss that despite the removal of the formal barriers and restrictions, informal and habituated barriers can stop women to take part in the political activities at the national level (Thomas, 2013, p.220). Second reason is quite surprising but true and impressive enough. Women are regarded as heterogeneous individuals, who used to avail differentiated and diversified political preferences and opinions. This is quite difficult for an individual at the national politics level to represent the diversity in front of millions of people. Hence, the party cabinet members always show faith in the male members comparing to female members (Thomas, 2013, p.221). Thirdly, according to a conducted research or survey, it has been identified that political decision making process initiated by a woman can be gender-driven in some cases due to normal instinct of women behaviour, which is quite natural. Male members can show their toughness during emergency situation comparing to female members (Thomas, 2013, p.221). Therefore, the party members always show faith in the male members. Hence, it can accepted that these are three major reasons or barriers that stop the female members to participate in active national level political activities in Canada.

Individual Level Barriers

In terms of the individual level barrier, it can be accepted that different types of socio-economic factors and orientations have forced the women within the society to follow the developed traditions (Thomas, 2013, p.222). It will be wise enough to accept that majority of the societies across the world is male dominating and male members always participated in external activities right from the historical ages. Hence, it can be acknowledged that the trend has remained in this present modern era in which majority of the women are responsible for managing and controlling the domestic responsibilities. Therefore, it can be accepted that these socio-economic factors and control factors are the major reasons behind the low involvement of women in the national level political activities (Thomas, 2013, p.222). Several researchers have argued that the marital and parental status of women actually affect the political career of women, but it is not a justified or debatable fact as several successful women politicians are wives, mothers and daughters. Therefore, it will be better to state socio-economic factors as major barriers (Thomas, 2013, p.223). Most importantly, women are habituated with this particular social concept to control the demographic responsibilities and they feel comfortable in doing that.

Social Level Barriers

Social or community level barriers are also considered as critical contributors, which results in lack of involvement of women in the nation al political activities. Most importantly, different types of important approaches have been developed within the male dominated society. According to several politicians or theorists, politics is more of a masculine word as political activities require leadership, man management, toughness, and other diversified components (Thomas and Young, 2014, p.377). Majority of the individuals across the society are habituated by seeing male members as politicians considering their strong decision making orientations and skills. However, in recent past, the world is experiencing that some dynamic women politicians are leading countries, which is a desperate requirement. This particular social trend can be identified in the municipality level politics in Canada (Thomas, 2013, p.225). In Canada, women are most likely and favoured to engage in the school board activities. On the other hand, the male members are oriented to get engaged with different types of public utility board activities in order to take care of a sustainable balance in the public service offering process (Thomas, 2013, p.226). Considering these important aspects, it can be mentioned that the marketing regarding the political activities in Canada is sophisticated comparing to other developed or developing nations. Moreover, this is also important to discuss that several popular and leading universities across Canada are responsible for offering accurate training and development programmes for the women members to construct their level of authority efficiently and quickly (Thomas, 2013, p.227).

Political Barriers

Lastly, women members of the societies across Canada find it difficult to enter in the potential political career due to some critical political barriers. If a female individual succeeds to overcome the associated social and individual barrier, though it will be difficult for her to overcome the political barriers (Schwindt-Bayer et al., 2010, p.702). First of all, it will be important to accept that four different political parties in Canada have different approaches regarding selection and nomination of the candidates. However, this will be critical enough for the women members to get a nomination opportunity based on the male domination and masculinity perception level (Thomas, 2013, p.227). There are four political parties in Canada and all the parties are conservative in terms of women empowerment and inclusion in cabinet house (Campbell et al., 2009, p.193). However, slowly and gradually, the scene is getting changed. It is mentioned in the essay statement that the Prime Minister decided to introduce 50 percent women members in the cabinet house. Apart from these, the secretarial officers are also not acting according to the commitment. In the year 2011, it was committed that the election will be campaigned based on gender equality, but the scenario was different actually as only 17 percent of the Members of parliaments were women in the year 2011, which raised the issue of gender inequality (Thomas, 2013, p.228).

Possible Political System Reformation and Different Suggestions

This is essential for the Canadian government to maintain ensure equality within the parliament environment. This is acceptable from the particular research work that the number of women is limited as members of parliament. Hence, an environment of equality should be maintained. This equality aspect needs to be reflected in the resource application and decision making process. Most importantly, the government of Canada should try to create a social awareness regarding the inclusion of common women in the parliament and cabinet (Cool, 2013, p.8). The women with strong leadership quality within the society need to be groomed by schools, colleges and different national agencies. The United Nations need to play a strong role in this reformation process (Cool, 2013, p.8). This will be important enough for the political parties to acknowledge the women empowerment option in each and every political event and electoral campaigns. Apart from these, the provincial legislation should be developed by the legislatures across different States of Canada considering the family-friendly environment orientation (Cool, 2013, p.8). This particular orientation process will help to policy makers as well as party members to initiate and accept women empowerment in the national political structure respectively.
Myrna Driedger is a popular MLA in Canada. There are several thoughts in the minds of common people regarding involvement of women in the active political activities. It also has been identified that different types of measures have been taken by the government and different political agencies to promote women empowerment in the parliament and cabinet. However, Myrna Driedger has accepted and shared that the government and parties are significantly trying to increase the awareness of under-representation of women in the political structure of the country (Driedger, 2013, p.12). Hence, she also has admitted that the quota system has been come out as a positive factor for women empowerment in the political structure of different countries. She also has raised her support regarding use of this particular quota system in t he country. Hence, it will be effective for the government to develop some guidelines and increase the awareness programmes and activities to promote women empowerment in politics (Driedger, 2013, p.12).
Apart from social awareness and political reformation, the Canadian government should also introduce different types of gender quotas in order to improve women’s representation in parliament. This type of quota system will assist in fast-tracking the empowerment growth of the women in country’s political system (Virgint, 2016, p.7). It is highly essential to discuss that different types of constitutional quotas can be introduced as this quota system has become successful in countries like Sweden and Germany (Virgint, 2016, p.8). Apart from the constitutional quota system, the reformers along with the Canadian government should also introduce electoral quota and volunteer political party quota. Such approaches will improve the picture of the empowerment concerns (Virgint, 2016, p.8).
Apart from the quota system, the Canadian government can expect help from the campaign schools across Canada. In these campaign schools, the Canadian should try to promote the need for women involvement is political system as this particular awareness and development programme will, help to bring sustainability and equality in the country’s political system (Thomas, 2013, p.230).  Each of the organization should control and monitor the success of the adopted grooming as well as promotional strategies. (Thomas, 2013, p.230) The course developers should show their concerns regarding the establishment of an online campaign course. This particular course will have two different benefits. First of all, it will promote and create awareness. Secondly it will help to acquire valuable knowledge and realization (Thomas, 2013, p.230).

Conclusion


It is clear from the above discussion, analysis and evaluation that Canadian government and legislators are trying to bring gender equality within the country’s political structure. Moreover, it will be important enough for the organizations, such as campaign schools and different public agencies to promote this aspect to improve women empowerment. Women used to face, political, socio-cultural and individual based barriers regarding entering to the national political structure. Moreover, social orientation, lack of family support and other gender inequality issues are stopping women to participate in the electoral; nomination process. Despite the challenges, the country is attaining percentage growth in this particular parameter, but still ranks 62 among all countries. It will be important for the government and policy developed to consider quota system, awareness process and training and development programme to improve women involvement. 
Responses to discussion questions ( SUBJECT: MUSIC ) troubadours
Top of Form

I believe that Muslims had a huge cultural influence on the
troubadours of the d'Oc region of southern France. The Muslims really encouraged education as it may you a better Muslim and I believe that had a large impact on Arab music. The Moors and their singing girls helped to transfer arab music and poetry from the south to the north. When William the 8th received hundreds of Moors singing girls and he took them to France. This definitely had a large impact on the culture in France. The biggest influence I think was with William the 9th. William the 9th grew up with these singing girls and he was heavily influenced by them. Once, William the 8th passed and William the 9th at the age of 15 inherited these singing girls. William the 9th was also considered the first troubadours, thus having a large impact on what troubadours did. There is definitely validity to cross-culture influence as William the 9th was influenced by the Moors culture and the culture his father William the 8th grew up with. William the 9th later went on to share that culture with other cultures.

Response:
I agree with your ideas and thoughts. It is indeed interesting to note that how education had a great impact on the Arab music and poetry from the South to North. The Troubadours were very much well-educated and were also famous for their poetry. This is evident from William 9th who was also inspired from the troubadour mythology. However the influence of the Muslims on Troubadours cannot be ignored who played a vital role through their influence in music and poetry.

·         Comments ( your idea)  about the paragraph above, I want 3 sentences

The culture influence on the troubadours of the d'Oc region of southern France represented a defining point of time in early music history. The presenter interviewed Professor Reynolds from the University of California, to get more insights on the music developed by troubadours in Spain. It was shown in the documentary that troubadours were influenced by the Arab singing girls from the time they were young, for instance William the 9th of France. The opportunity he had to watch and hear them sing exposed him to universal concepts of romantic, idealized love.
From the music Troubadours were surrounded by (instrumentalists, singers, or even the sound of nature/ a water fountains), they were prompted to write poets about thoughts and stories of lovers. It was interesting to me how this time of history was so centralized around the romantic movements, clearly explains how our modern society carried this movement forward.
Besides the fact that all Muslims were eventually kicked out of Spain, there were many examples shown in the documentary that tells us how there were many cross- cultural influences between Muslims and other religions during this point in time of history. The Islam religion seemed quite powerful according to the documentary and breathtaking to me as the presenter mentioned several times about how the population grew tremendously overtime. These people were part of much historical advancement, such as mathematics, science, and technology, etc. By relating the cross-cultural influences to music, the origins of Muslim and Spanish cultures were combined with each other to construct a more unifying connection and character in the sound of music and poetry made by troubadours.

• Comments ( your idea)  about the paragraph above, I want 3 sentences


I agree with your ideas and views as you have provided a very unique description about the influence of the Muslims on the other religions. No doubt Islam played a unique role in almost every part of the education sector in Southern France as well in Spain. It also interesting to add here that the oral poetry particularly in the subject of Romance was also made famous by the Muslims residing in Spain. There is vast evidence present which shows that Muslims played a significant role in the Andalusian verse and songs.  It is also believed that troubadours had developed the sense of subject matter and sense from the poetry of Andalusian Muslims.
Scenarios (Subject: Psychology)
Observation: Using an anecdotal method, describe children’s actions, language, interactions, relevant surroundings, and materials used during play. Provide 2 separate but related observations

Max.  6 sentences for each, past tense

  • Should read like a story
First :

Sara, Hannah, Toure and Andy all were sitting on the chairs and wearing helmets and pretending that they were in a bus. Sara was playing the role of bus driver and other children were playing as part of the students. Sara shouted and told other children to stay calm in the bus while she was driving. Toure and Andy started to cry showing that they didn’t like the way their driver Sara shouted at them. Suddenly Hannah said loudly to put brakes as she saw a big stone ! And all of a sudden Sara said in a loud voice OKAY.

Second:

 Amily and Sophia both were making gifts cards and were role playing as they were going to travel on plane. Amily told Sophia that she is making a card for her grandma when she will go to meet her. Sophia got excited and said that she would like to see what she made so that she can make that too for her uncle. Sophia also told Amily that she will visit her Uncle and will fly on a plane this coming summer break. Suddenly while Amily was coloring the paper got ripped due to which she felt bad. Sophia helped her to give a new paper and encouraged to make a new one.




Max.  6 sentences for each

2 interpretation for each stories

First:
All the children expressed their role play in very amusing way. Their emotions are apparent from the pretending of crying when one of the children shouted. Their communication is exhibited through the way they talked with each other during their role play. The engagement is observed through the act they are performing and cognitive abilities are evident from the words of Hannah of seeing a stone and Sara showing that she had control of the bus.

Second:
Emotions are evident from the excitement that both girls possess while making the gift cards. Their communication level is good as both try to share what they are making and for whom they are making. They seem to be engaged in a way they show their love for coloring and making cards. The cognitive abilities are depicted through the way Sophia fixed the problem of Amily who ripped the page accidentally.



Name of the play: Cardboard Box Activity-  we want to implement the activity base on this answers the questions. cardboard boxes are pretend as a sitting in bus and we have driver and police officer with traffic lights too.
 - Main inquiry (as noted in your interpretation):
Whether the 2 boys and 2 girls can enact a street scenario that includes moving buses, traffic police and signal system, whether the children use correct language model and whether the children enjoy the play. The roles of all the participants in real-life scenario are being displayed by the children. This will enrich the children’s sense of belonging, and interaction between themselves.


- Explain how the learning experience supports the children’s main inquiry and skill:

Children’s learning is enriched when they work with others to solve a problem or investigate an interest. Working with others exposes them to ideas of others which broaden individual understandings. Working jointly also improves relationship with each other.


- Describe your objectives and outcomes for children’s learning in your learning plan.

The learning outcomes will highlight that children have a strong sense of identity, children have connection with their world and can contribute to it, children can reflect on actions and consequences, can communicate needs, feelings, and ideas.
- Explain how your learning plan is authentic and meaningful.
Authentic learning is based upon authentic, relevant, and real-world tasks, students are actively engaged, and learning is closely associated with real world scenario outside of the class room. Here the setting is real-life street scenario which is beyond the walls of the class-room and students are actively participating in the play. Hence the learning plan is authentic and meaningful.
 - Describe how your learning plan will support children as they make connections between what they already know and what they are learning in your activity.
The learning plan will help children develop cognitive reasoning. The children have real-life experience which is being enacted through the play. The cognitive ability will help them connect between what they know and what they learn.
- Describe how children will be active participants in your learning experience
Children will be active participants in my learning experience as I will be able to observe their communication abilities and at the same time analyze their cognitive skills as well. Such as how they are able to solve any problem that they might face and how they will treat their other friends if they encounter any problem which is hard to solve. 


What teaching strategies will you use to support children’s inquiries? How will you encourage children to articulate and reflect on their thinking?
Active learning strategy will support children’s inquiries. Active learning is anything that the students do in the class-room rather merely listening to the teacher’s instructions. Active learning improves students’ retention of information and understanding. This also improves higher order cognitive skills required in problem solving and critical thinking. I will encourage children to reflect thinking through various games that specifically focus on Role play.





Research method Questionnaire

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Many of our students wanted to get a good questionnaire that can be used for research methods ....
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Part I: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE   

1.    Sex    Male:                                  Female:           
2.    Age in Years:
18-30 Years

31-50 Years
51-65 Years
>65 Years





3.   Marital status:       Married:                      Unmarried:                     Divorced:      
4.   Area of Specialization:
Doctor
Nurse
Pharmacists
Laboratory Personnel
Others
(please specify)







5.   Time since you started your job in the present hospital
< 1 year
1-5 Years
6-10 Years
11-15 Years
16-20 Years
>20 Years








6.   Level of Education
Diploma

Undergraduate
Graduate
Advanced













Part II: Evaluation of job satisfaction
Please think and decide the way you feel about the various aspects of your current job mentioned below and choose the appropriate option
GENERAL SATISFACTION                                                  
                                                                       

Strongly
Agree
Agree
Uncertain
   Disagree 
Strongly
Disagree
Job has more advantages than disadvantages





Salary is reflection of my work





Infrastructure and work environment is satisfactory





Limitation of resources frustrates me





I find my work really enjoyable







Personal Development 

Strongly
 Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Provided with sufficient development, Training & skill development






Supportive supervision






Staff recognition and appreciation






Opportunity for promotion






Feeling of accomplishment







Organizational Culture


Strongly
 Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Good working relationship with colleagues





Can count on my colleagues for teamwork and cooperation





Too much is expected from me
at work





Freedom to use personal judgment





Staff and management cooperate with each other





Management pays attention to the well-being of staff





Staff is involved in decision making process





Clear channel of communication at workplace





Happy with the style of management in my department







RESPONSIBILITY               

Strongly
 Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
I enjoy the status in the community as a healthcare professional





I am entrusted with great responsibility in my work





Major portion of time is consumed by activities that can  be done by staff with less experience and training





Need to do many non-clinical tasks






PATIENTCARE

Strongly
 Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
I am able to give sufficient time to each patient





The patients appreciate what I do for them





My patients understand my working conditions and they cooperate with me











Considering it overall are you satisfied with your job?

Strongly
 Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree








If given an opportunity will you leave your current job?

Strongly
 Agree
Agree
Uncertain
Disagree
Strongly Disagree















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