1.      Describe the id, ego, and superego and tell how they work together according to Freudian theory  
            The id, ego and superego are systems that are considered as one of the most important divisions of the human psyche and can be used to describe and rationalize the human behavior. The id, ego and superego are systems and they are developed at different ages to help us assimilate in the society.  The id involves the primitive urges that are instinctual and are not moderated by any conscious thinking. The super ego is related with the moral principles that are entrenched in society and are learned from the experience and observation. The ego balances between these to help in rational decision making that serve self-interest within the bounds of moral principles established in society. According to the Freudian theory, the superego and id are always struggling for balance and any decision to indulge the id while ignoring the standard of ideal behavior set by superego would be punished by guilt or when the set moral standards are achieved, can be rewarded by pride. Thus, the internal connection between these three systems and their influence on the decision making has been used by the Freudian theory to explain the different distinctions of human behavior and justify the decision and the feeling of guilt or pride that often follow a decision.
  1. What are values, and why should marketers care?
            The customers always have some factors that affect their decision-making in their purchasing behavior. The customer always measures any product or service against the possible benefits gained from the product or service before making the decision to avail the service or the product. There are different factors which the customer translates into benefits with the price of the service or product. The factors that the customer uses to measure the comparative benefit of a product or service are values. These values are numerous like the ease of use, quality of the product or the comparative low price or greater usage facilities or useful features. All of the factors that influence the purchasing decision of the customer are values (Shimada, 2014).

The marketers need to understand the customer values for the scale the customers are going to use to measure the cost to benefit of the product or service is valuable tool to design and present the product in such a way that meets the customer expectations. Therefore, by understanding the customer values the marketer can influence the purchasing decision making process of the customer and achieve business objectives. Thus, the understanding the value is essential for the business success.
  1. A government agency wants to encourage the use of designated drivers by people who have been drinking. What advice could you give the organization about constructing persuasive communications? Discuss some factors that might be important, including the structure of the communications, where they should appear, and who should deliver them. Should fear appeals be used? If so, how?
The first advice that can be given to the organization is to define the term ‘designated driver’ clearly as many believe the designated driver needs to be not inebriate completely. This reduces the risk but does not ensure safety. The process of discussion that leads to the election of a designated driver from a group of youth also stipulated be developed so that level of impairment is taken into consideration and should be based on turns so they all take responsibility for their safety. The structure of the communication should be interesting describing with the help of visual examples how the drunk driving can lead to accidents and such. The place for the presentation of the communication should be in the places, which the youth frequent, and the same can be said about the material they read usually or the social media sites that are popular (Terer & Brown, 2014). In this way, the approach is bound to reach the highest population of drunk drivers. Fear appeal should be used as the innocents are often victims of drunk driving so the use of the visual exhibits representing drunk driving accidents and fear of penalization should be used to make the people understand the severe consequences of their actions.





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