Impact of Bio-cultural Framework on the Indigenous Food System

Planet Earth is facing severe ecological crisis because of Globalization, Global Warming, and overconsumption of natural resources, revolution and over population in global society. Indigenous people around the world are trying to preserve the ecological balance of the environment and guide us by providing information on the Bio-cultural model which helps to preserve the food system (Analysis of a model designed for land restitution in protected areas in South Africa, 2011). Indigenous people deliver an insight view about the use of the local economies and practices on land management. Aboriginal people are also depicting how to maintain the spiritual relationship with nature and promote biodiversity conversation. All these factors work as the guideline for living a healthy life-style.
Bio-cultural framework is the model, which works as the lens to see the disease and embodiments. This framework enables scientists to depict the reason behind the increasing rate of illness and disease. The Bio-cultural Framework has been developed to get précised understanding about the food habit of the particular region.
According to Barndt (2009) WGIFS has developed the Indigenous Food System Network Website; the website is designed in such a way, which contains information about the individual aboriginal people in the food related action, policy and research.  The Medicine Wheel is another tool, which is used for the Bio-cultural Framework. It has four quadrants (Health, Economies, Generations and Youth, sustainability), which represent the balanced interconnection between the four factors.
Documentation of the traditional food system of Pohnpei, (2005) has depicted that Indigenous Food system depends upon several other factors like fertility of land, quality of land, weather or climate of the particular region. The growth of the crops is depending on these factors; the vast numbers of rivers, landforms, climatic zones, vegetations, watersheds are shaping the food system for thousands of years. These factors help in shaping the food habit of the indigenous people. Food habit is based on the Bio-cultural model of the particular region. Indigenous food system consists of the land, water, air, soil and culturally important plants. On the other hand, Doyle (2007) stated that Animal and Fungi species determine the food system of the indigenous people for thousands of years. Beuchat (2007) depicted that Bio-cultural framework has no impact on the food habit of the indigenous people and with the help of the technical developments; people of one place are able to learn about the food habit of other places.
Food habit of people significantly depends upon the level of energy a human body needs. Every part of the food system of indigenous region is inseparable and the ideal function of the Healthy interdependent relationship is to transfer energy. Indigenous foods are cultivated primarily and people are taken care of it. Later it is harvested, preserved, prepared and traded to the other regions. Kuhnlein (2009) opined that changing in food habit has increased the demand for different indigenous food habit. Often it is seen that indigenous food habit is limited in the boundary but recently it has crossed all the boundaries and reached in other region. Spigelski (2009) said that indigenous food system has maintained a traditional way of cultivation and food system.
By the virtue of Erasmus (2007) Indigenous people are showing great concern towards preserving the food system and ecological balance. Since the time of the colonizers, aboriginal people are facing heath related issues. There is a drastic decline in the health of the aboriginal people. To sustain the health condition, indigenous people are focusing on cultivating homegrown foods.  It is a healthier habit to intake homegrown foods.
Furthermore, as stated by Stepp (2002) apart from this indigenous people are also concentrating on effective use of resources. Selective fuel wood extraction is become the prime concern of the indigenous people. With the blessing of science, we have already explored many fuel sources but wood is still used by many people of rural sides. Aboriginal people need wood for cooking, warmth and smoking meats. Fuel wood is the necessary for the rural people, who are living in the shantytowns. With the help of the indigenous practices, they are trying to preserve the fuel wood for future use.
According to the opinion of Wyndham (2002) in southern part of African Savana, aboriginal people have developed communal woodlots and harvested the fuel wood in sustainable manner. Many villagers of this place have revealed the new method to avoid the damage in the eco-logical system of environment. People understand that cutting the specific parts of the plants for firewood has affected the regeneration of trees. Regeneration is also affected due to the fewer gaps between the plantation time of the trees and harvest time of the trees.
In accordance with zarget (2002), careful consideration is needed for undertaking a holistic approach with which biology is associated. Indigenous people have understood the negative impact of harvesting fuel wood without thinking so they used fuel wood properly. Government is also worried about the fuel wood so government should think over the matter.
On the contrary, Wong (2010) depicted that Indigenous Peoples’ Bio-cultural Climate Change Assessment Initiative or IPCCA is developed with the aim of providing empowerment to the indigenous people so that they can also adopt them with the climate change. While adopting the changes, bio-cultural framework plays a significant role.  An indigenous bio-cultural approach is being developed by the IPCCA in order to conduct necessary assessments of climatic change and associated risks for aboriginal community. This approach is evaluated with a motif to create an interconnected world where socio-culture, biophysical and spiritual elements are playing vital role for maintaining resilience.
IPCCA has taken an initiative on the climate change and the indigenous steering community drives this initiation. The Food Sovereignty Movement has built around the world and there is no universal definition of Indigenous Food Sovereignty.  This approach is considered as the new and innovative approach to achieve the long-term food security (Dube, 2004).  With an intention to address the underlying issues and the ability to respond towards the needs for the culturally adapted and healthy indigenous foods, the indigenous food sovereignty can be considered as the innovative approach.
The health of the indigenous people is maintained fruitfully with the help of the Food Sovereignty Policy approach, which have lowered the suffering of the people from chronic disease such as cardiac disease, diabetes etc. according to the current statistical report, it has been overviewed that around 19% of indigenous health gap is subjected to diet related causes in Australia. However, in remote indigenous communities of Australia almost 20% of the youth or middle-aged people have been perceived that they do not consume fruits daily and almost 15% people do not have vegetables regularly (Indigenous women and the United Nations system, 2006).
From the overall discussion of the paper, it can be excavated that Bio-cultural framework attributes a lot in the Indigenous Food system largely. Food Sovereignty Movement is also beneficial for the indigenous food system and it helps to maintain the health of the aboriginal people. Local foods are good for the health and indigenous people have understood the need of the local food systems.  Bio-culture framework first research on the topic and then takes action; later the Bio-cultural Framework also monitors the entire work. Different workshops are organized to teach the indigenous people about the bio-cultural diversity.

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