Asthma In South Africa

·         Asthma in the global context is the most vividly and frequent chronic disease among the people and has been observed that asthma is most prevalent among the children.
·         It is basically a non-communicable disease, which under conditions of being undiagnosed in proper stage can lead to vulnerable conditions of the health leading to death. Cough, Wheeze, shortness of breath and tight chest are symptoms of asthma and it gets worse at night. Quality of life can be affected due to asthma like exercise becomes impaired, disturbed sleep and acute attacks.
·         Moreover the medicines which are meant for this disease is somehow costly and so many of the underdeveloped countries cannot afford this medicine to buy (To et al., 2012).
·         From the recent report of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINAI), it has been understood that due to asthma, death rate among five to 45 years old is increasing and South Africa has become the fourth largest asthma attack country in world (Day & Bradshaw, 2014). Increased rate of air population is the prime cause of airflow limitation in lungs and chronic inflammation of lungs as well. 3.9 million people in South Africa is affected due to asthma, in which 1.5% dies annually.  
·         With the help of this bar chart, asthma rate in different cities of South Africa can be determined. Western Cape is suffering highly due to asthma among other cities like Eastern Cape, Gauteng, Limpopo, North West, and Northern Cape.

Rate of Asthma patients in South Africa and World
·         The chart determines the worldwide rate of asthma. Populated countries are mainly affected due to this; large numbers of vehicles are causing breathing trouble. With the help f above chart, it has been determined that Wales people are suffering hard but due to lack of proper treatment process, people recover. Besides, Russian Federation, in comparison with the number of population, date rate is quite high.  

·         This graph facilitates in understanding that mainly male are suffering from asthma as they are mainly going out of the house. For men, the danger of asthma in South Africa tops at age 80+. It slaughters men at the most minimal rate at age 10-14. At 302.2 for every 100,000 men in 2013, the pinnacle death rate for men was higher than that of females, which were 264.9 for each 100,000 women. Females are murdered at the most astounding rate from asthma in South Africa at age 80+. It was slightest lethal to females at age 10-14.

·         The South African medical journal establishes the report where between 6-10% of the adults carry this disease because of the lack of the proper treatment or being diagnosed in right condition. Also the report suggests that about 3.9 million South Africans have been suffering from asthma, among which 1.5% die per year.
·         A recent survey conducted over the school children suggested the fact that more than 20% school children have been suffering from this disease.

Causes of Asthma in South Africa

·         It has been seen that asthma is such a disease which is caused due to some common factors irrespective of any context of the country. Pollution is one of the main causes behind asthma attack; and can be occurred due to stress, urbanized lifestyle and genetically. Cross-sectional study has been conducted on this matter for identifying whether these factors are causing South African children to develop asthma.
·         Besides, scientists have researched that they are working hard on the biological explanations as well. Causes of asthma do not depend on countries, it almost same everywhere. Often it is seen that psychological factors like work pressure and depression affect immune system and endocrine system of human body (Ndlovu & Jeebhay, 2014).

·         Some of the psychological factors such as anxiety and stress also have significant impact in increasing hyper-reactivity and inflammation of airways. All these psychological changes affect psychological propensity regarding asthma. Reverse action is also seen; often asthma becomes the cause of increased anxiety and depression. One of the studies also accounted the fact that the South African kids, especially under 12 years who are presumed to have more anxiety as well as rendering to community violence has higher rates of asthma.

·         Nevertheless, a precise audit of partner ponders in high-salary nations found that not exclusively is mental anxiety a result of asthma; it likewise appears to add to onset and seriousness. If so, the mental anxieties made by urban living, group savagery and family unit destitution may contribute hazardously to the asthma load among South African youth. Along with that viral cold, allergies, pollution, sports, exercises, emotions, and wrong medication can be the cause of Asthma.
·         Moreover it has also been identified that the most of the South African have a history of genetically disorders which also leads this disease to be quite prevalent among the natives of the state.

Impact of asthma

± South Africa, being a developing country still has the record of carrying the statistics of fourth highest asthma attack rates in the world. This data quite brings the fact the reason for being attacked by the disease is almost same with that of any other country.
± But in most of the cases it has been observed that the patient suffering from asthma are not reported in right time and thereby leading to a serious condition. This is mainly because of the poor economic condition of some states or social rigidity which forbids in treatment of the disease at right time
Treatment Cost of Asthma is quite high; therefore, poor or middle class people cannot able to treat asthma. Asthma can affect adults and children socially, morally and economically as well. Often asthma attack children are sked from school to stay at home to avoid risk. Parents of other children have prejudice that asthma can be infectious disease and it can be spread by touching so they requested principle to ask that particular student for staying at home (Machingaidz & Louw, 2016). This affects their morale. However, with the government intervention, monthly expenditure on the medication of a children is almost 350, which is affordable for middle class people but not for poor people. Childhood asthma has noteworthy negative impact on the daily activities of children like gaming, schooling, education, and family life. In case of adults, they are also suffering at workplace and marital life.

Treatment for asthma

No matter whatever doctors say, asthma cannot be treated or cured completely. It can be avoided or restricted for some time but it cannot be cured. However, with the right treatments most asthmatics can able to lead normal life. Purpose of this treatment is to make the lungs or breathing tube as normal as possible. It is long-term disease and to control this
Ø  Adopt precautions for shortness of breathing and coughing
Ø  Have quick relief medicines
Ø  Maintaining good lung functions (Nkosi & Voyi, 2015)
Ø  Maintain daily activities
Ø  Do proper exercise and avoid junk foods
Ø  Avoid tensions
Ø  Constantly stay in contact with physician for proper asthma management
Ø  Develop and follow Asthma Action Plan
Lack of proper treatment
± In some cases it is also seen that the high cost of the medicines as well as their availability also hinders the treatment of the disease as the people are not financially equipped to buy them (Bradshaw et al., 2010).
± The impact of the asthma in country like South Africa can be identified by the financial disability which leads to the premature deaths.
± This scenario is quite prevalent among the children of the ethnic group.
± Moreover the socio-economic status or SES of the natives in some countries also hinders the proper treatment of the disease; thereby leading to more death rates.

Government measures to prevent asthma

± GINA Science Committee is constantly trying to bring improvement in providing treatment to patients. Medical facilities are provided to the working class people so that needy people can able to avail treatment.
± Several campaigns are organized to make people aware of living healthy life and not to smoke because prevention is better than cure.
± Initiatives are being taken by the South African government, to give awareness and proper education regarding the disease among the society (Calvert, & Burney, 2010).
± Accessible information is also being transmitted to the people so that the country can turn around from this situation.
± Moreover the availability of the medicines in the country is being distributed at a broad level now. This might lead to stop the rapid spread of the disease in the state.
± The burden of the disease asthma has been increasing over the government of the country, especially the health care houses.
± The Government of South Africa has taken few initiatives to develop the asthma care facilities in a wider perspective through identical treatment procedures.


± Therefore it can be understood that for a developing country like South Africa, asthma is capturing out to be disease which is creating the country’s maximum death rate index.
± The burden of the disease have to be better understood by the people and the government in particular, so that they can avoid the premature deaths.
± The majority of the patients in the country are low SES group which are hindering them from proper medication, hospitalization or therapy services in a controlled way. 

± Asthma has become a chronic disease among children and adult. It can be happened for several reasons like pollution, anxiety, tension etc. this cannot be treated properly and government is taking several measures to curb this problem

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