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Some interesting questions that I would like to share



Which of the following are examples of descriptive research methods?
Answer is

A psychologist randomly assigns children to study either alone or in groups, and then tests the children on what they remember.


There is also a very interesting pack of DVDs and Books on Study of behavioral psychology which has good information.
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The author of the current article Migrant farm workers deserve better from Canada is aiming to show the roles of migrant farm workers in the development of the agriculture of the country Canada. As per the research work of author, near about 30,000 farm workers came annually to Canada from various parts of the countries named as Jamaica and Mexico. In addition, a large portion of the farm workers of Canada are also coming from the other Caribbean nations. The migrant agricultural workers come to Canada as per the Canada’s Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program. In this context, although the migrant workers have great roles in the development of the agriculture of the country, but they do not come under the farm labor laws of Canada. In accordance with Trottier and Arsenault, (2011) as a result in most of the cases the workers are not able to get their minimum wages for their hard work. They are also not paid as per the overtime wages standards of the country. As Balkissoon states “ SAWP is “the lifeblood of our industry and migrant workers have proven to be a vital part of every growing season in Ontario, as they commit months of their time each year to help farmers around the clock. However, Farm laborers in Ontario, including SAWP migrants, are exempt from labor laws that govern minimum wage, overtime and rest periods”.
Balkissoon also proposes that the government should consider the fact with great concerns as the migrant agricultural workers play most effective part in the agriculture of the country. They should deserve proper wages as per the government rules. In addition, the government also should give priority to the health standard of these workers. They also should give proper medical facilities.


I agree with the author’s views and thoughts as Dias-Abey, M. (2015) also states that in most of the cases, their family members also do not get the permission to come into the country to accompany them. In addition, there is no possibility of getting Canadian citizenships for the farm workers. Besides this the farm workers also not get the minimum medical facilities.



                                                            References

Balkissoon, D (2016). Migrant farm workers deserve better from Canada. Globe and Mail. Retrieved electronically at

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/migrant-farm-workers-deserve-better/article31936582/


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Budget plays a significant role in one’s life because without this it is not possible to live a contended and a satisfied life. Planning a budget helps to give a brief synopsis of salary and costs for a specific period. One of the important tools that I will be using to analyze my budget will include Biilguard, Smartsheet, Paypal and Toshl. I will utilize all these important tools in order to manage my budget effectively.
Managing my budget through the use of credit cards is indeed very tricky.  For this I will use the Billguard tool that helps to take a deeper look into the credit card statements. My target in this procedure is to have a managed budget by using the credit card in the right place and not over spending with my credit limits. In this way I will cover my costs, and will save some credit for crisis.
The analysis of my budget will also be done through the use of Smart sheet. The smart sheet is similar to the spread sheet but as it is online so it will be easy for me to use it quickly. Using the smart sheet will focus on the end goal and will also figure out what is in the degree and what is out of extension. I will lay out a diagram of the costs and source of cash and anything which identifies with cash.
In addition to this figuring out how much will I spend daily and to estimate the spending that would cover the entire year's cost and gaining with the monetary backing will be executed through the use of PayPal. It is less demanding to diagram and ascertain for the entire year through Paypal balance yet any required changes can be made effectively by splitting the expenses and keeping the track of where money is going.  
I will also evaluate and actualize the constraints and confinements to set up some criteria. For this spending, I will incorporate my educational cost charge, everyday costs, books costs, diversion costs, telephone costs and different costs that would make a significant commitment to the managing of the budget. I will survey my salary and different assets independently so as to recognize the distinction.  I can incorporate my low maintenance work hours, my midyear work and my educational cost costs. Those will be there. I can likewise expect one altered measure of cash for rent and bills.
Finally, the way toward dealing with the spending will be encompassed over me for the most part. I need to ensure that I have enough assets to bolster myself and to have additional extra cash for crisis. My objective in this financial plan is to carry on with a feasible existence with some surplus for crisis.
My budget:-
Expenses: -
 Lunch and Dinner ……………………………….. 35%
My School fees ……………………………………70%
 My Entertainment……………………………… ….8%
My Other expenses…………………………….........5%
My Books expenses…………………………..........20%

Also by using the budget calculator I found out that I can save $932.29 monthly if I cut out some of the items that I use often. The details of calculated budget are as follows.

Monthly Savings:
$932.29
1 Year Savings:
$11,187.43
5 Year Savings:
$55,937.14

Items to cut out: 
- Lunch out ($7 daily)
- Coffee ($3.25 daily)
- Candy/Gum ($1.65 daily)
- Magazine ($5 weekly)
- Movie - ticket and snack ($24 monthly)
- Pizza - takeout ($30 monthly)
- Drinks out ($45 monthly)
- Dinner out ($52 monthly)
- Gym membership ($50 monthly)
Additional amounts cut out:
$10.00 daily
$10.00 weekly
$10.00 monthly
In this way I will be aware of how to use the cash appropriately without overspending it.
My Reflection:-

I am quite satisfied with the analysis that I conducted and with the help of the tools and budget calculator I was able to figure out the weaknesses in my budget and how to correct it in an effective way. At first it was however difficult to begin without any preparation I had no clue about how to oversee and make sense of the costs. Nevertheless it turned out to be simple and once I began, it came to me orderly. Since I have the framework, it will be simple for me to take a shot at this in future and roll out significant and attainable improvements.
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Introduction

The horizontal aggression also referred to as lateral violence is often the cause of stress in the nursing profession which even without the added stress is one of the most stressful professions in the context. Horizontal aggression is defined as “aggressive behaviour that one registered nurse commits against another registered nurse” (Edward, et al., 2014).  American nurses’ association conducted a study where the results showed that the amount of professional stress is higher in the nurses and the rate of leading to the inability to perform the duties is even higher than the armed forces. Therefore, the seriousness of the problem is too high to be discarded casually (Reynolds, Kelly & Singh-Carlson, 2014). There are different theories that explain why some people might gravitate towards a specific profession like nursing and the explanation of the factor often uncover the basic characteristic trait the nurses have in common. These help explain the reasons behind horizontal aggression and the effect of said activity in the quality of health care received by the patients in Canada.
The explanation for the horizontal aggression is based on the theory of the wounded healer. The theory focuses on the facet of the nursing profession where some personal trauma leads some registered nurses to understand the problems of the people needing care and support and thus the people with personal trauma feel the urge to help the people in need. The personal pain of the people can drive them in two ways. If the personal pain is recognised acknowledged and transformed, then it can help the people sympathise with others in need but otherwise it can fester and make them angry or overly emotional. This leads to the bullying of the other members who are vulnerable which has been explained by the term of the walking wounded. The vulnerable are members who are less secure and people with lighter duties like the night shift nurses and new recruits who are unfamiliar with their duties. The effect of this violence is not evident in the shorter period but the overall structure of the workplace is affected and the level of care the patients receive decreases.
Therefore, the effect of the horizontal aggression is to be determined on the performance of the nurses and the quality of care delivery. The patient is the main indicator in the research and the effect that is analysed are based on the overall performance indicator of the nurses is based on the stress level and other factors that are related with the horizontal aggression (Purpora & Blegen, 2015). The level of horizontal aggression differs and the victims are often chosen based on some specific criteria therefore the overall effect of the horizontal bullying can be easily discerned.
 The issue that is to be expounded on in this pare is directed towards determining the relation between the patient care level and the nurse performance and the horizontal aggression.
Impact on health care services and future nursing profession
The stress that is mentioned before is another main culprit in this case also as the stressful and hectic life of the nurse and the stress leads to discontent and emotional instability. These negative emotions need an outlet which is mostly the new recruit or vulnerable ones. This leads to even more discontent and stress in the workplace as essentially the abrasive behaviour passes the stress to the victim who in turn is affected negatively and become a walking wounded who passes on the stress through further violence and thus the cycle can contaminate a workplace corrupting all of the nurses and affecting the health care delivery severely.

Negative work environment

The negative work environment that is created when the stress level is high along with the discontent among the nurses is harmful for the nurse without question but the effect on the patient care quality is astoundingly high. The effect of the overall stress is based on the personal tension, professional high involvement and the of course the stress generated by horizontal aggression. The overall relation between the co-workers who should help one another to gain maximum efficiency in the work is often strained. Therefore, among the resultant harm from the bullying and the overall stressful environment is the negative work environment affects the professional efficiency of the nurse (Egues & Leinung, 2013, July).

Anger and emotional problems

The anger and emotional problems are part and parcel of the horizontal aggression and the effect of the aggression leads to more of the same and the balance of the workplace is disrupted along with the behavioural pattern that needs compassion and the sympathy from the nurses affect the recovery. There is also the factor that the inability to provide proper care is not limited to the time and order of medicine but also the care level and attention of the nurse, therefore the anger and emotional problems also affect the nurses performance and adversely affect the level of care the patient receives (Heckemann,et al., 2015).

Alcohol and drug abuse

Although the nurses are aware of the different harms that come from the drug and alcohol abuse the stress of the workplace when added with lateral violence is often overwhelming for the person to cope with and for relief and oblivion they turn to drugs and alcohol. This also affects the performance as the steady hand and wakefulness is compromised making the nurse vulnerable and the patient suffers from inattention (Myers et al., 2016).

Job satisfaction

As the workload in the nursing profession is very high, the nurses need to be well satisfied to provide best care for the patients. This means that the nurses perform better under the supervisions that allocate specific duties among them according to skill level and experience. The workplace bullying or lateral violence disturbs the balance and reduces job satisfaction (Topa & Moriano, 2013).

Apart from these effects there are many effects that differ from each other on a case to case basis and more often than not the effect of the horizontal aggression is based on the person who is inflicting it on the other and the person upon whom it is being inflicted. Therefore, the analysis is incomplete without the factor of the individuality and uniqueness of reaction being factored in the equation. Nevertheless, the effect of the horizontal aggression is quite profound as many of the factors are applicable in other professions as well bit in the nursing it takes a whole new dimension because of the stressful nature of the job and the compassion and calm judgement required by the profession. The effect of the horizontal aggression on the nurses naturally transfers onto their charges and their health as the performance level of the nurses is directly related to the patient’s wellbeing (Blair, 2013).

Conclusion

It is evident from the above analysis that horizontal aggression and bullying is not just a problem in Canada but all over the world as the level of accountability is high in all the locations. Therefore, it can be surmised from the paper that the effect of the horizontal aggression naturally spills over into the care delivery of the patient and affects their health adversely as the thesis suggests. The different effects are analysed in detail in the analysis and the introduction provides a brief insight into the causes and the definition of horizontal aggression. 
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Case 1

1. Is leaving a letter with the children’s belongings a good enough way of contacting parents?
Leaving a letter with the children’s belongings is not a good way of contacting parents and although no harm was to come to the children the chance was as they were to be exposed to some substance that does not occur naturally and might have potentially generated allergic reactions or some other problems in some individuals. But that is not the point of this question as even if there was no potential of harm direct permission from the children’s parents were to be taken in the experiment as it is the ethical thing to do (Kodish, 2005). If there was some intention of really notifying the parents, they could have asked for feedback from the parents before starting the experiment. Therefore, contacting them through a letter that was not even personally delivered and receipt made clear is clearly a half-hearted attempt that cannot be condoned ethically.
2. Is opt-out consent from the first phase of the study ethically acceptable, or should it be opt-in?
The opt-out consent from the first phase of study is not ethically acceptable as the consent was asked after the children had been exposed to plant virus market solution. The harm to the children that could have occurred is not the main concern but the ethical point of view is focused upon where the children were exposed to something or included in some study without the consent of their parents as the participants were toddlers and thus under the age of consent. This is ethically wrong as far as I am concerned as the permission of the participant must be taken before they are included in some study for scientific purpose (Lo Piccolo and Thomas, 2009). The study should have been an opt-in as they made sure that the parents received the letter they sent or given feedback after the receipt of the letter allowing their children to be part of the experiment.
3. Is the first phase of the study really ethically different from the second phase?
The first phase of the study is ethically different from the second phase as the sample was to be taken from the children’s hand and their consent or their parents in this case was necessary to retrieve it. But just because the first phase could be conducted without any personal contact does not mean that it should not have required permission from the parents (Kodish, 2005). The ethical point of view focuses on the question whether it should be done and not on whether it could be done. So, it is ethically wrong to conduct the first phase as it was done by informing the parents through a vague letter where the children at their age could not have asked or told their parents about it. Therefore, although the first phase of the experiment could be done without personal contact it should have required permission from the parents to conduct. In this case both of the phases of the study are the same as they both should require permission (Oliver, 2010).
4. Was parental consent needed at all?
The parental consent was definitely needed as the experiment even though the first phase did not require any personal contact the children were clearly studied without their consent which in this case revert to the parental consent s all of the subjects were toddlers and thus minors. The risk to the children is not the matter of concern from the ethical standpoint as any harmless observation for research purposes should be preceded by the consent of the people included in the study (Pimple, 2008). Therefore, even if the test was benign and did not require any personal contact for the most part it should have required the permission of the subject from an ethical standpoint. So we can definitely state that yes the consent of the subjects is necessary in the case of any study and the unaware participants of this study were minor so parental consent was must have for the commencement of the study (Smith Iltis, 2006).

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The book “African History: A Very Short Introduction” by John Parker and Richard Rathbone is actually a very brief introduction to a very big topic. The history of Africa has been considered as insignificant by some historians and ideological weapon by other historians. In the early days, Africa was considered to be a land of Barbaric and illiteracy. However, this kind of categorization of the history of Africa has been intentionally done for providing the legal ground for the colonialism of the 19th century.
The authors of this book John Parker and Richard Rathbone have broadly narrated that the country Africa had their own respective culture and history. This book, on one hand, is a short history of the place and its people while on the other hand, this book narrates the past history of the place (African History: A Very Short Introduction pg. 1).  The authors state
“To begin with Africans speak a dizzying variety of languages. Due to the subtle differences between the languages and dialect the exact number is debatable, but the figure in the region of 1500, is generally agreed upon by linguists” (26).
The authors have indicated that there are enough problems or issues perceived within the context of early Africa which are very much critical not for understanding the entire civilisation but for gaining knowledge about the overall discipline of their history. They had their own perceptions of viewing and analysing their surroundings. As it is stated that perhaps the best known uprising against the colonial rule was the Maji-Maji rebellion in German East Africa (pg. 99). This shows that the study of the history of Africa depicted the autonomous and independent focus on the recent development of the continent. It has been widely believed by the Western historians that the country Africa had no civilisation and thus had no history.


Main approaches to intellectual history of Africa
There are various approaches to intellectual history of Africa that are mentioned as follows:
ü  One approach is to treat the country as an extension of social history. By means of this approach, the ideas about the country become an effective medium to understand the culture of the country. Due to the immigrants of Islam, Spanish, Portuguese, Romans and others in Africa, the continent showed the cultural differences much prominently (African History: A Very Short Introduction pg 36).
ü   Another significant approach to intellectual African history is the approach of collective cultural values. According to John Parker and Richard Rathbone, the differences in the language, signs, traditions, symbols, etc. are the key indicators that determine the diverse history of Africa. The authors propose “ there are signs of the time and shape of thoughts” (p. 64). As observed by the past historians, the intellectual history of the country is very much influenced by the emerging cultural anthropology during the year 1970s and also in the early 1980s.
In the concerned book, the authors have clearly depicted the role of colonialism which has helped to transform the societies and economies of Africa to a great extent. Colonialism was considered as the “ephemeral episode” in the African history (p. 92). The African history has always been a controversial topic and thus is immensely contested. The history of the country has been dismissed by ‘unimportant’ by some historians as mentioned in the book. The question of racial discrimination also evolves while discussing about the history of the country (93).
Furthermore, according to the authors “Slavery brings us back to where we began, to the invention of Africa” (p. 146).  This also depicts the fact that Africans, being dark skinned, are being rejected or refused by the Western countries comprising of the white skinned people.
Main themes
In the book the authors have artistically produced the historical knowledge of the entire country and also brought about the currents in the political thoughts in the twentieth century. The societies of Africa are being treated as primitive and completely unchangeable as there is no literacy which prevents their way to achieve collective historical consciousness. John Parker and Richard Rathbone have been greatly attracted by the nature, development and transformation of the entire African civilisation. Poverty was also an important factor in the continent for which the whole civilisation has suffered from slavery and bondage from the rich European people (p. 10). As discussed in chapter 4 of the book African citizens have long struggled to gain independence which had been isolated from the main currents of the human progress (p. 70). Also the parts of the third world war laid serious impact on the African empires conquered by Europe.
In addition to this the aftermath of the Second World War leading to the fall of the pseudo-scientific hierarchies of racism (p. 3), there have been several doubts regarding the fact whether the past history of Africa is valid or not. This theme of doubting the history of the continent has also paved the way to the idea of African history. Some scholars have also argued that because of the involvement of diaspora (p.89), it cannot be said that the African history has remained at the age of a neat continent. Rather it has reached out to the extent which is called ‘black Atlantic’ (p. 9).
Methods developed by historians to study the African past
As mentioned in the book, John Parker and Richard Rathbone have narrated that the historians have developed or followed various significant methods and techniques that helped them to investigate or study the past history of the continent. They have carefully examined the age archaeology to review the past condition of Africa. From the 19th century, the study of the archaeological excavations in Africa has helped the historians to navigate the past history of the continent. The culture and the data of the people along with the chronology of the continent have also led the historians to analyse and assess the social and cultural perspectives of the people of the country. Moreover, the historians have also gained knowledge about the European knowledge of Africa from the Portuguese voyages of the ‘age of discovery’. Also these voyages have introduced a strategy through which the thoughts and perceptions of the Europeans towards the Africans can be transformed (pg 5).

Conclusion


The overall study narrated that the book “African History: A Very Short Introduction” written by John Parker and Richard Rathbone generally highlighted the past history of the continent Africa. This book describes the past history of Africa and about the physical place and the people of the country. The authors have clearly portrayed the fact that the country is encompassed with diverse and site of early mankind.

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