Abstract

In Canada, most of the aboriginal men and women are suffering due to several health issues,. Among the several other health issues, the prime one is cancer; this paper is concern with the negative impact of cancer and how people can get rid of cancer. Screening programs and mammography tests have been developed to understand how to reduce the mortality rate among the people who are belonging to aboriginal community of Canada. With the help of this paper, an examination has been set out to evaluate the possible way out from this difficult situation. Historically, the rate of cancer is comparatively low in the aboriginal people of Canada due to less population in rural areas but dramatically or more precisely ironically the mortality rate is increasing. The governing body of Canada has believed that if major steps are not taken then aboriginal people of Canada are going to suffer hard in that case the rate of mortality can easily suppress the number of cancer patients in non-aboriginal community. From the study, it is understood that this malignant disease can be prevented and to mitigate the risk factors governing body has taken some major steps which are modifying the life-style of aboriginal communities, socioeconomically interventions and changes in interventions.


Literature ReviewIntroduction:Literature review is a section in which researcher has used journals, articles and books to gather in depth knowledge on the particular topic. With the help of the literature review, researcher will able to understand various contrary views of different researchers. The past researchers on the other hand help to understand the empirical study and from different perspectives researcher can come to the conclusion.This paper is primarily concern with the health issues of aboriginal people of Ontario, Canada (Correction: Vitamin D-Related Genetic Variants, Interactions with Vitamin D Exposure, and Breast Cancer Risk among Caucasian Women in Ontario, 2014). More precisely it can be said that Cancer becomes a domestic disease around the world, aboriginal community of Canada is not safe from the grasp of Cancer; people of this place are suffering high s-due to this deadly disease and this research paper is concern with the prevention programs of this disease.In equal treatment in Ontario:The aboriginal community of Canada is mostly represents the 52 nations and they are talking in 60 different languages. Though the number of aboriginal people is changing in daily basis as different new communities have been established and in search of new places aboriginal people are looking for new places. In accordance with Marrett (2003), due to geographical distribution, aboriginal people had taken shelter in many other places so they had negative impact on health. On the other hand Sundquist (2012) stated that health care Delivery System had taken care of the aboriginal community of Ontario; Health Care Delivery System was trying to provide Cancer Care treatment in each province.Figure 1The following chart clearly depicts the rate of cancer patients in First nations or in aboriginal communities.On the contrary many critics had said that in comparison with the non aboriginal community, aboriginal people had been getting low health care service. There were also facing health related critical situation due to unhygienic conditions of their territory and province. From many graphs it could be easily derived that the mortality rate due to cancer is high in the younger people of aboriginal community rather that younger people of non-aboriginal community. Even the infant mortality rate was also high enough. Apart from cancer they are affected due to infection and sexually transmitted disease. Theories are analyzed to understand the cause and origin of Cancer and how the social structure of Ontario are oppressing some people but on the other hand proving privileged to the other people of Ontario. The governing body of Ontario is trying to rectify the structure of Health care system so that aboriginal people of Ontario would get equal treatment. They had to be treated beyond their race, sex and culture and liberate aboriginal people from constraints.Barriers in providing appropriate health care serviceSchmeler (2012) opined that there were several shortage and barriers that preventing Health care providers to provide appropriate treatment to the aboriginal people. While providing treatment, the service providers had been facing trouble in case of cervical cancer screening programs specially in rural area. Apart from theis, after surveying the aboriginal people of Ontario, it can be concluded that as the aboriginal people are the first nation and the women faced difficulties while revealing their problems like breast. In accordance with Vance (2012), the aboriginal people especially the women are feeling shy about their body and physical examination. If the examination had been conducted by any male health care service providers they felt very shy and often was often refused to get treated.Niruparna (2012) depicted another problem which had been found at the time of treating patients was lack of recall system, there was no such system and even the primary health care service providers like nurse or general physicians had forgotten to share the information of the patients with the Health care service providers of Canada. Lack of recall system was considered as the major barrier for the screening program.  Gallinger (2012) said that apart from these two, transportation was one of the barriers in case of providing treatment for cancer care. Aboriginal people of Canada could not able to go beyond the rural area, in that if they wanted to avail treatment they had to go to urban area or some larger rural clinics. Vance (2012) argued that at that time, the patients had to use Medical Transportation Van. Transportation also became a major issue for the working women of Aboriginal community; they could not able to afford a loss of entire day. If they really wanted to avail treatment in that case they had to leave the community early in the morning and return in the evening. In that case the women were not ready to avail treatment unless they face any acute physical problems. In accordance with Nirupama (2012) besides this there was a problem of child; many women of aboriginal community of Canada had no one to take care of their child so they refused to travel a lot and even they could not able to carry their children as if there was no space for the children, parents were not allowed to carry their children.In accordance with Sundquist (2012) lack of education was also conscientious as another factor of rising burden of this malignant disease. After surveying the aboriginal community, many critics had said that “Educations plays a vital role”. The women were mostly feeling shy to join the screening programs but they were mostly affected due to cancer. The education of women was seen in terms of their attendance in formal school system from where they could gather knowledge about cancer. Due to lack of education, most of women were feeling problems at the time of mammography also. They not even lacked of formal education but also lacked of proper health education. On the other hand it had been found that the aboriginal women of Canada who were formally educated had knowledge about the health and they also understood health related barriers. And these women were more comfortable with the screening and mammography.Figure 3From the above chat t has been clear that how many people are suffering due to different type’s cancer in all over Canada. The rate of cancer incidence in Ontario is 50 per 100,000.Cancer prevention framework and Screening:Manno (2012) stated that most of the result of cancer was the general susceptibility of genetics, environmental factors and hygienic foods. According to many researchers it could be said that this malignant disease was preventable. It had also been predictable that most of the cancer disease could be prevented if steps were taken timely. If the researcher were able to modify the key factors then 30% deaths which had been occurred due to cancer could be prevented. The risk factors which were associated with cancers were obesity, misuse of tobacco and alcohol, improper diet chart, lack of physical activities, sexual relation with the HPV patients, smoke from solid fuel, pollution in air and most important lack of fresh vegetables in diet chart. On the other hand it was quite difficult to modify genetics and environmental issues but the burden of cancer could be mitigated with the help of implementations of several strategies. Among the several other strategies one of the vital one was early detection in which with the help of many social programs the disease among aboriginal people could be prevented.Figure 4From the above chart it has been concluded that there are several determinants which are affecting the health of aboriginal people and also generates the risk of cancer among the aboriginal people.Apart from this many other programs had been arranged to ascertain the problems; a range of models and framework had been proposed to mitigate the health related problems. All the programs and models were for the non-aboriginal people of Canada and there was no specific framework for cancer preventions had yet been undertaken for screening and cancer prevention in aboriginal community. Many researchers had proposed many conceptual frameworks which elucidated environmental factors and biologic factors. On the other hand Rabeneck (2012) pined that the aboriginal people had to understand the modifiable determinants and should work on them efficiently to reduce the risk factors. Aboriginal people and Health service providers had to work collectively on the cancer prevention programs. Aboriginal people should gather knowledge on these factors. Different determinants have different impacts on the cancer and the mortality rate is also different for various variables. Apart from all these factors, aboriginal people of Canada had to think on the equal distribution of resources focus on the social determinants and environmental determinants of health and collaborative approach are prerequisite in mitigating the burden of cancer on the aboriginal community of Ontario.SummaryFrom the above study, it has been clear that the paper is majorly concern with the increasing burden of cancer among the aboriginal communities of Canada specially Ontario. Most of the people specially the women are affected due to this deadly disease (Correction: Weight Change and Survival after Breast Cancer in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, 2015). With the help of several other journals and articles, researcher will has become able to collect data on the particular topic. From the above study it can also be concluded that there are several other determinants which are provoking cancer. Apart from this, this research paper also peep through the strategies which are helping in finding a ground for the cancer patients of aboriginal communities.Refences:Hoffman-Goetz, L., Shannon, C. and Clarke, J.N., 2003. Chronic disease coverage in Canadian Aboriginal newspapers. Journal of health communication, 8(5), pp.475-488.Marrett, L.D. and Chaudhry, M., 2003. Cancer incidence and mortality in Ontario First Nations, 1968–1991 (Canada). Cancer Causes and Control, 14(3), pp.259-268.Correction: Vitamin D-Related Genetic Variants, Interactions with Vitamin D Exposure, and Breast Cancer Risk among Caucasian Women in Ontario. (2014). Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 23(7), pp.1440-1442.Correction: Weight Change and Survival after Breast Cancer in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project. (2015). Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 24(1), pp.319-319.Ji, J., Sundquist, K. and Sundquist, J. (2012). Cancer risk after hospitalization for osteoporosis in Sweden. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 21(4), pp.395-399.Nirupama, N. (2012). Institutional perception and support in emergency management in Ontario, Canada. Disaster Prevention and Management, 21(5), pp.599-607.Ramji, F., Cotterchio, M., Manno, M., Rabeneck, L. and Gallinger, S. (2012). Association between subject factors and colorectal cancer screening participation in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Detection and Prevention, 29(3), pp.221-226.Schmeler, K. (2012). Preventing Cervical Cancer Globally. Cancer Prevention Research, 5(11), pp.1257-1259.Vance, V. (2012). Diet, weight change, treatment-related and psychosocial challenges in women treated with chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Waterloo, Ont.: University of Waterloo.Warner, E., Causer, P. and Messersmith, H. (n.d.). Magnetic resonance imaging screening of women at high risk for breast cancer.















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