It is quite common that parliament and other political institutions across different countries are being controlled and monitored by majority of male members. It is quite rare to experience that the majority of the parliament members within a country are female. However, it has been identified in Canada in the year 2015 that a cabinet has been constructed by 50 percent of women out of entire cabinet members. In the year 2015, Justin Trudeau, The Prime Minister decided that the cabinet will be developed by majority of women members and it has been discovered that 50 percent of entire cabinet members are women and this is also important to mention that only 30 percent of the female Liberal Member of parliaments were elected in the year. It also can be introduced that 26 percent of entire members of parliament were women in the year 2015 and they were 88 in number. However, similar type of incident was happened in the year 2011, where 25 percent of the all the members of parliament were women.
The current paper will discuss why the females are under-represented consistently in the house of provincial legislatures. Moreover, this essay will also determine the possible obstacles or barriers to the election campaign of more number of female Member of Parliament. Lastly, the paper will suggest and recommend some valuable political system reformation approach, which will encourage more number of women in the politics. The paper will also focus on three developed issues regarding participation of women in political campaigns in Canada.

Under-Representation of Women

Canada is a developing nation with open social structure in which women enjoy valuable freedom. However, doing job and campaigning in an election event are two different things. An individual needs to focus on three important aspects to get elected as a public leaders, such as the individuals should select themselves, the candidates of a party should selected the individuals and lastly the common voters of a region should select the individuals as their leaders (Cool, 2013, p.3). However, there are several reasons behind the under representation of women, which are discussed below.
First of all, majority of women or females feel comfortable to handle domestic responsibilities as they are oriented with such things from their childhood. Most importantly, the social structure and family orientation encourages them to get busy with domestic responsibilities after a certain age. Apart from these things, it is identical that healthy numbers of female members within the Canadian society prefer professional careers to enjoy freedom and maintain self-respect as well as self-dependency. Hence, this will be determined as the lack of family support; inadequate social orientation and mindset of the women force them not to get involved with the political activities (Virgint, 2016, p.2).
There are other reasons too behind the under-representation of women. It is the common orientation of voters and the active party members to see the men as the potential candidates. However, this particular scenario is changing slowly and steadily. In several developing and the developed nations, women are being nominated as electoral candidates. Similar kind of approach is being identified in Canada as since the year 2006, the percentage of female electoral candidates is increasing at a significant rate. There are four major political parties in Canada (Cool, 2013, p.4). Hence, the voters as well as party members of the four parties have number of female candidates are increasing in all the four parties. Despite the growth rate in percentage, Canada ranks 62 in terms of number and influence of women power in country’s political structure. Being a developing country, this particular figure cannot be acceptable as it is not impressive. Hence, it can be accepted that Canada is a male dominating country considering the country’s political orientation and structure.
In terms of success or failure, it can be accepted that 76 women candidates have been elected as the Member of Parliament in the year 2011. This figure, volume, number and percentage has been improved in the year 2015. The success rate was slightly lower comparing to the male candidates. The election commission or the political parties’ do not have particular quota or empowerment system, guideline or regulation system regarding the nomination of female members (Cool, 2013, p.5). Hence, it is clear that women candidates are not impressively successful, but gaining slow growth rate. It may change rapidly in near future considering women empowerment and social reformation approaches. 

Obstacles or barriers to the Election of More Female MPs

It is clear from the previous section that women are finding it difficult to get nominated as electoral candidates. Moreover, the four major political parties in Canada are more male centric as they have belief that male candidates have better leadership skills and controlling aspects comparing to the women candidates.
However, lower level of the political engagement of women are challenging for three important reasons, such as individual level barriers, social barriers and political barriers. First of all, females are oriented as the underrepresented group from the historical ages. Moreover, this is also essential to discuss that despite the removal of the formal barriers and restrictions, informal and habituated barriers can stop women to take part in the political activities at the national level (Thomas, 2013, p.220). Second reason is quite surprising but true and impressive enough. Women are regarded as heterogeneous individuals, who used to avail differentiated and diversified political preferences and opinions. This is quite difficult for an individual at the national politics level to represent the diversity in front of millions of people. Hence, the party cabinet members always show faith in the male members comparing to female members (Thomas, 2013, p.221). Thirdly, according to a conducted research or survey, it has been identified that political decision making process initiated by a woman can be gender-driven in some cases due to normal instinct of women behaviour, which is quite natural. Male members can show their toughness during emergency situation comparing to female members (Thomas, 2013, p.221). Therefore, the party members always show faith in the male members. Hence, it can accepted that these are three major reasons or barriers that stop the female members to participate in active national level political activities in Canada.

Individual Level Barriers

In terms of the individual level barrier, it can be accepted that different types of socio-economic factors and orientations have forced the women within the society to follow the developed traditions (Thomas, 2013, p.222). It will be wise enough to accept that majority of the societies across the world is male dominating and male members always participated in external activities right from the historical ages. Hence, it can be acknowledged that the trend has remained in this present modern era in which majority of the women are responsible for managing and controlling the domestic responsibilities. Therefore, it can be accepted that these socio-economic factors and control factors are the major reasons behind the low involvement of women in the national level political activities (Thomas, 2013, p.222). Several researchers have argued that the marital and parental status of women actually affect the political career of women, but it is not a justified or debatable fact as several successful women politicians are wives, mothers and daughters. Therefore, it will be better to state socio-economic factors as major barriers (Thomas, 2013, p.223). Most importantly, women are habituated with this particular social concept to control the demographic responsibilities and they feel comfortable in doing that.

Social Level Barriers

Social or community level barriers are also considered as critical contributors, which results in lack of involvement of women in the nation al political activities. Most importantly, different types of important approaches have been developed within the male dominated society. According to several politicians or theorists, politics is more of a masculine word as political activities require leadership, man management, toughness, and other diversified components (Thomas and Young, 2014, p.377). Majority of the individuals across the society are habituated by seeing male members as politicians considering their strong decision making orientations and skills. However, in recent past, the world is experiencing that some dynamic women politicians are leading countries, which is a desperate requirement. This particular social trend can be identified in the municipality level politics in Canada (Thomas, 2013, p.225). In Canada, women are most likely and favoured to engage in the school board activities. On the other hand, the male members are oriented to get engaged with different types of public utility board activities in order to take care of a sustainable balance in the public service offering process (Thomas, 2013, p.226). Considering these important aspects, it can be mentioned that the marketing regarding the political activities in Canada is sophisticated comparing to other developed or developing nations. Moreover, this is also important to discuss that several popular and leading universities across Canada are responsible for offering accurate training and development programmes for the women members to construct their level of authority efficiently and quickly (Thomas, 2013, p.227).

Political Barriers

Lastly, women members of the societies across Canada find it difficult to enter in the potential political career due to some critical political barriers. If a female individual succeeds to overcome the associated social and individual barrier, though it will be difficult for her to overcome the political barriers (Schwindt-Bayer et al., 2010, p.702). First of all, it will be important to accept that four different political parties in Canada have different approaches regarding selection and nomination of the candidates. However, this will be critical enough for the women members to get a nomination opportunity based on the male domination and masculinity perception level (Thomas, 2013, p.227). There are four political parties in Canada and all the parties are conservative in terms of women empowerment and inclusion in cabinet house (Campbell et al., 2009, p.193). However, slowly and gradually, the scene is getting changed. It is mentioned in the essay statement that the Prime Minister decided to introduce 50 percent women members in the cabinet house. Apart from these, the secretarial officers are also not acting according to the commitment. In the year 2011, it was committed that the election will be campaigned based on gender equality, but the scenario was different actually as only 17 percent of the Members of parliaments were women in the year 2011, which raised the issue of gender inequality (Thomas, 2013, p.228).

Possible Political System Reformation and Different Suggestions

This is essential for the Canadian government to maintain ensure equality within the parliament environment. This is acceptable from the particular research work that the number of women is limited as members of parliament. Hence, an environment of equality should be maintained. This equality aspect needs to be reflected in the resource application and decision making process. Most importantly, the government of Canada should try to create a social awareness regarding the inclusion of common women in the parliament and cabinet (Cool, 2013, p.8). The women with strong leadership quality within the society need to be groomed by schools, colleges and different national agencies. The United Nations need to play a strong role in this reformation process (Cool, 2013, p.8). This will be important enough for the political parties to acknowledge the women empowerment option in each and every political event and electoral campaigns. Apart from these, the provincial legislation should be developed by the legislatures across different States of Canada considering the family-friendly environment orientation (Cool, 2013, p.8). This particular orientation process will help to policy makers as well as party members to initiate and accept women empowerment in the national political structure respectively.
Myrna Driedger is a popular MLA in Canada. There are several thoughts in the minds of common people regarding involvement of women in the active political activities. It also has been identified that different types of measures have been taken by the government and different political agencies to promote women empowerment in the parliament and cabinet. However, Myrna Driedger has accepted and shared that the government and parties are significantly trying to increase the awareness of under-representation of women in the political structure of the country (Driedger, 2013, p.12). Hence, she also has admitted that the quota system has been come out as a positive factor for women empowerment in the political structure of different countries. She also has raised her support regarding use of this particular quota system in t he country. Hence, it will be effective for the government to develop some guidelines and increase the awareness programmes and activities to promote women empowerment in politics (Driedger, 2013, p.12).
Apart from social awareness and political reformation, the Canadian government should also introduce different types of gender quotas in order to improve women’s representation in parliament. This type of quota system will assist in fast-tracking the empowerment growth of the women in country’s political system (Virgint, 2016, p.7). It is highly essential to discuss that different types of constitutional quotas can be introduced as this quota system has become successful in countries like Sweden and Germany (Virgint, 2016, p.8). Apart from the constitutional quota system, the reformers along with the Canadian government should also introduce electoral quota and volunteer political party quota. Such approaches will improve the picture of the empowerment concerns (Virgint, 2016, p.8).
Apart from the quota system, the Canadian government can expect help from the campaign schools across Canada. In these campaign schools, the Canadian should try to promote the need for women involvement is political system as this particular awareness and development programme will, help to bring sustainability and equality in the country’s political system (Thomas, 2013, p.230).  Each of the organization should control and monitor the success of the adopted grooming as well as promotional strategies. (Thomas, 2013, p.230) The course developers should show their concerns regarding the establishment of an online campaign course. This particular course will have two different benefits. First of all, it will promote and create awareness. Secondly it will help to acquire valuable knowledge and realization (Thomas, 2013, p.230).

Conclusion


It is clear from the above discussion, analysis and evaluation that Canadian government and legislators are trying to bring gender equality within the country’s political structure. Moreover, it will be important enough for the organizations, such as campaign schools and different public agencies to promote this aspect to improve women empowerment. Women used to face, political, socio-cultural and individual based barriers regarding entering to the national political structure. Moreover, social orientation, lack of family support and other gender inequality issues are stopping women to participate in the electoral; nomination process. Despite the challenges, the country is attaining percentage growth in this particular parameter, but still ranks 62 among all countries. It will be important for the government and policy developed to consider quota system, awareness process and training and development programme to improve women involvement. 

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