1: Niccolo Machiavelli is one of the recognized Italian Renaissance historian, a famous diplomat of that time, a popular humanist and a politician of that time. He is better known and recognized as the creator of political science. He was the former theorist who first who discriminated and separated the concept of politics from ethics and drew an autonomy and independence in the study of politics. In one of his handbooks like as “The Prince”, he claimed that he is actually not interested in speaking of ideal republics and imaginary utopias. He dealt with effectual truth of politics in his works. The major motive was to ensure realistic use of the self-government. His works like as “The Prince” literally shows the world about the expected intricacies that the world would have experienced if the same were looked in a demoralized perspective.

2: During the period of enlightenment, with the help of the philosophical movements that even controlled and governed the world of ideas. The fundamental element of enlightenment era is closely related to the concept of “scientific revolution”. The same movement also a included a wide range of facts and facets of liberty, tolerance, progress, fraternity, constitutional government and the severance of church and the state itself.

3: The era of enlightenment was the age when rambling intellectuals, philosophers, cultural figures and social movements had scattered through England, France, Germany and other parts of Europe. Enlightenment is defined as the evolution of man from his self- incurred immaturity. According to Kant, good morality can be perceived through the era of enlightenment that really occurs only when there are least external influences, which may even result in corruption (Smith, 2013)

4: Hegel’s Phenomenology of Mind is actually related to the only recognition. According to his philosophical movement, the nature of the recognized desire actually turns up to be a master, whereas the recognizing desire takes the nature of a slave. Slave is actually, what represents the ability of working under the instructions of the masters. Slaves are actually de-humanized according to the philosophy and the master’s existence purely depends on the existence of the slaves. Hegel introduced the concept of slave ideology. He was the first to realise that slaves must accredit the need of external content of freedom. According to his beliefs, equality, justice and freedom are symmetric for all masters and slaves in the world afterlife. He believed that there is no master without a slave and that led him to consider the concept of formal freedom for slaves apart from material freedom.

6: Marx’s conception of “Commodity Fetishism” enables to understand the dichotomy of commodities. Commodity according to him is the explicit objects that satisfy the wants of the human beings. Commodity Fetishism is the technique where the commodities persuade with the benefit of the financial exposition that even empowers the value of the commodity irrespective of the labour productivity. Marx has identified the two most important aspects in “Commodity Fetishism” namely – use value and exchange value. He considered the modern technological advancements as mysterious objects. Commodities are actually magical in nature as they are dissimilar from the manufacturing processes.
7: According to the Marx theory of human nature, human nature is generally treated as “species-being” or “species-essence”. Marx also expressed the viewpoint that humans are different from animals. Human beings produce their own physical environments. According to the philosophies of Marx, productive activities were always essential for carrying on human activities (Calzada-Pérez, 2014).

8: Relative autonomy is the concept that relates to the state power depending upon the Marxist ideas. The phenomenon of relative autonomy takes into consideration that the state may play the role of a limited sovereign role in maintaining the stability of a capitalist society. The concept of relative autonomy is different from pluralism by considering the state power as a diverse element from the ideological and structural characteristics of capitalism and a capitalist society. Gramsci has tried to encompass with the economic bases of mission control according to the Marxism theories of relative autonomy those edges out to the passive agents of superstructure model.

10: False consciousness is the basic concept that is actually imitative in nature from the Marxist theory of social class. False consciousness also encompasses with the methodical falsification of the foremost social relations in the society with the subordinates existing in the society. While Marx offered an objective theoretical ideology for class that is entirely based on the analysis of the objective features of economic relations that builds up the social constructs for the society, Louis Althusser mostly came up with a significant perspective that supported the roles of ideology in the class society. The findings of Althusser actually distinguish from interpretations of Marx and the former states the relevance of “ideological state apparatus” that generates social states of knowledge in the society. Althusser’s works strongly places arguments regarding the fact that ideologies are insentient in nature and he believed that social structure is reluctantly imposed upon most of the men in the society.

11: The ideology of reproducing labour power by Althusser is considered as the most effective ideological apparatus. This ideology helps in lending labour power a new material means for reproducing itself by means of wages. As wages are the cost of labour and is the value of the labour, the same helps in progression of the labour power of the wage earners, this ideology seems to be an effective phenomenon being applied in reproducing efficient labour power in relation to the material conditions in the production processes.

13: Lacan focused on three stages of psychosexual development namely – the real order, the imaginary order and the symbolic order. According to his perception, the infant usually stumbles upon a mirror. In his theories, ego is always alienated as the same is destructive in nature. Too much of ego can make individuals less sympathetic. It can also restrict people from growing. Ego can make an individual competitive but in an unhealthy manner. The same creates the situation more critical in nature.

14: Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, the book written by Michel Foucault referred to only identify the social as well as the theoretical constructs that took place in the Western penal system and legislative systems. Foucault only proactively focussed and considered the legal systems and the political background of the physical phenomenon that liberated the rights and the power of the regimes. He also produced a clear outline of the fact that imprisonment has not just become the only form of penalty for punishing any individual on the humanitarian grounds (Gunder, 2010). However, he has also empowered that imprisonment with disciplines are also found in many places like as school, colleges and even care homes. He argued later that disciplinary power controls and even is circumstantial to the entire society. He believed that there are two types of punishments – violent punishment and chaotic public torture. Foucault however wanted his readers to consider the factors driving them towards changes and the ways in which the concept of the western attitudes changed. He also believed that punishment corresponded to the initial step to generalize the significance of punishment.

15: The three most important phases of problem for madness are as follows – the Renaissance, the “Classical Age” and the Modern experience. Foucault contends to the dawn of age of reason.
17: Ideology is actually comprises of normative beliefs, conscious and unconscious ideas that a particular society usually is usually considered. The idea of progress initially was grown up from the perspective of enlightenment since the 18th century. Human nature is actually difficult and the same is actually twisty. Most of the human beings are compliant and are neither good nor bad and thus compassion is an innate as cruelty.

18: The Great Transformation written by Karl Polanyi. He tried to contend that the contemporary market economy and the contemporary nation state must appreciate the different elements of the human invention. The ideology of the great transformation deals with the economic mentalities. In this particular ideology, people are mostly based on the reciprocity and redistribution of the capitalist institutions.

19: Science is actually anarchistic enterprise according to the words of Paul Feyerabend. The concept seems to be valid on the humanitarian grounds and also facilitates and encourages the progress in the legal and jurisdictional alternatives existing within the society.

20: Capitalism is referred to a particular system that assures people to live a self-fulfilled life. This is mostly common in America, mostly in divorce cases, child abuse, domestic violence and alcoholism among the people. Irrespective of self-realization, there exist some levels of alienation, which may even lead to self-deception at several cases. Marx tried to encompass with reasons for how capitalism became an economic concept as – the same is a recognized economic system and that too emphasizes with the division of labour and thus influences the profitability of the nation. Capitalism is an ideology as the same generates alienation that the same is an economic system where the subordinates usually control the productivity as well as the labour power (Althusser, 2014).
22: A dominant culture is the one that helps in providing effective ways of interaction and understanding that are actually relevant to the groups and the situation. Often it is impossible for that particular group to get depressed and suppressed as the group is characterized with innovation, confidence and effective organization. The most anonymous example is the field of education. There are different ways in which education can be represented namely – the skill of developing individual capacities, social constructs for giving the children the feasibility in attaining skills that actually contribute towards the benefits of the society and to make every student loyal and an obedient citizen. However, the concept of culture later was introduced to replace the language of race. The essence of cultures endorsed in cultural relativism is actually today fostered through the execution of several multicultural approaches to education, policymaking  and activism. This however facilitates the schematization of the modern communal and supporting relations. This is mostly because, due to the failure of the culturalist approaches that usually intended in encountering the racism, specifically attributed towards the supposed individuality politics mostly among the minority groups.
23: Within the teacher-student relationship, there exists a narrative character. Narration however helps the students in memorising the narrated content automatically. According to Paulo Freire, based on the humanitarian ground, education has positively become an act of deposition where the depositories as well as the professors play the role of depositors. The stakes usually lie around the fact that leads to change the consciousness of the oppressed. Often people who are more oppressed are able to adapt this situation rather than that of the dominated individuals. The oppressed individuals are however recognized as the pathology for the entire society. The nature of the problem-posing education can withstand the security of the oppressor.
24: Universal coldness is actually a metaphor. The concept of universal coldness actually refers to the social exclusion of any class from the society due to any severity in the social constructs and they are being deprived from getting included in any social factors. Moreover, the concept claims that universal coldness relates to the social exclusion due to cold-related concepts. Social exclusion from the society actually makes people deprived and isolated from the society. Social exclusion also leads individuals from on-line virtual interaction and that do increases the desire of the people to have warm food. This particular outlook also intends in facilitating the social cognition of the employees and also literally supports the perceptual contents of the same (Paliokosta & Blandford, 2010).

No comments:

Post a Comment

Powered by Blogger.
Have questions? Connect with us on WhatsApp
Hello! How may I assist you? ...
Click to start chatting...