Annotated Bibliography: Subject; Social Science


                                            Future of human reproduction and science

Abrham, C (2012). Unnatural selection: Is evolving reproductive technology ushering in a new age of eugenics? The Globe and Mail.

The current article is a vivid speculation about the future of reproductive methods in future aided by technology which can indeed be dangerous. This article points out dangers of the new technologies being researched and outlines the risks for future. This article also focuses on the future reproduction through gene manipulation where the normal sperm and eggs would be ignored in favour of cells from any part of the body especially skin cells because of the ease of extraction and availability. The turning of any cell into stem cell is the basis of many reproduction researches but this technique focused on the CRISPR/Cas-9 mode of gene editing and modification that allows for the scientists to control the development of the new life by excluding possible genetic flaws. This while a possibility in future is not without its weaknesses as according to the article the non human reproduction done through the use of the CRISPR/Cas-9 method resulted in unexpected mutations in the cells that were not genetically flawed. One of the important aspects that comes in mind are related to the technology itself and one might think that whether modification of the technology and further development is the only option. However at the same time observing that the result of producing deleting genetic flaws sometimes become successful, therefore this technique cannot be ignored in the possible use in human reproduction.

Bennington-Castro, J. (2017). You Won't Believe What Baby-Making Science Could Soon Deliver. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].

This article discusses the possibility of various genetic ways through which reproduction can occur. For example, the author highlights the scope of creating viable gametes from just skin cells and its implication of the human reproduction both scientifically and socially. The article expounds on the benefits of the process in reducing the dependency on donors for genetic material in case of infertile couples and prevents any genetic defect in the baby which might render it impaired. However, this is an argument that discusses both the good and bad possibilities and the social implications for the people without any hope in the current reproductive technology. Thus, the facilitation of specific traits in the babies created in this technology might raise some concerns related to great ethical dilemma as the technology that allows for deletion of specific defects can also be used to add traits and thus manufacturing a human with specific attributes.

Breakthrough procedure edits dangerous gene mutation in human embryos
This article is about the negative aspects of gene mutation and the possibilities it presents for humans in general. This focuses on discussion of the eugenics and the possible implications for human race. This concept of the in vitro gametogenesis from pluripotent stem cells along with pre-natal selection generation several generations of humans in vitro lead to the belief that selection of humans with enhanced genome. The specific application on the in vitro gametogenesis that is discussed here is names ‘in vitro eugenics’. The possible dilemma about the human evolutionary development and the competing views about human enhancement is analysed on a benefit to risk basis. Thus, one of the questions that are of concern are related with the ethical dilemma of the practical application of the process and the possible hope it brings to the childless is considered. The high demand for creating children along with the genetic enhancements that might have lasting impact on human race are the dilemma that is explored from the perspective of possibilities in fertility research and medical ethics and contrasting views about human enhancement.

Picard, A (2017). Gene editing is not about ‘designer babies'. Globe and Mail.
Retrieved electronically at

This is the most recent discussion about the future of human reproduction and the author here outlines the possible technological development on the aspects of reproduction that are already available to expand in scope and the possible ways of reproduction that would no longer require sexual intercourse. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a technology that is already available which supports the notion that the possible advantages of the clinical reproduction is bound to be popular in future due to the possible advantages and safety of the procedure. The current nature of the PGD is weak at best and expensive but the current direction of the research on the matter of clinical aspects of reproduction which is given the moniker of test tube baby suggests future popularity of the process (Suter, 2016). The social implications aside the health benefits and the pace of development of the technology suggest that the technology is bound to replace sexual intercourse as a medium of reproduction in near future which is primitive and carries a lot of risk about the health of the mother and child. Thus, the development of the PGD is only a matter of time.

Shamus, K. J (2017). Scientists see breakthrough in creating male contraceptive; Discovery is first step in finding drug treatments that could block gene controlling sperm creation. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved electronically November 3rd at

The current article is a case specific accounting of an azoospermatic male who faced infertility issues because his body was incapable of producing sperm. The review goes on to explain the process of creating male contraceptive which is a new development in the fertility research carried out in the recent times. This process that is explained takes genetic material for the candidate and then turns them into stem cells. These stem cells when put into certain environments took the characteristics of the adjacent cells and formed different cells which are promising for generation of gametes. This technology can be applied in case of both sperm and eggs which makes the infertility as non issue in for future generation. Thus, generating sperms of eggs from other kinds of cells is a new direction in fertility research that is bound to make severe change in the way the fertility is seen as a medical issue. Although the possibility of production of any kind of cell in laboratory is possible the gametes will decidedly have the most visible impact on the social scenario and the way fertility is seen in most cultures. The article goes on to explain the extent of the research where the example of mice reproduction facilitated tail cells have been carried out and the writer is optimistic about seeing the human application of the technology in near future.

Picard, A ( 2017). Gene editing has far more promise than peril. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved electronically at!?&_suid=1509937708906019283684170257254

The concept of Genome editing is the main focus of the article which points out the possibility of choosing the child that would have the best chance of leading healthy happy life. Thus, the moral reasons behind the Genome editing for the couples planning to procreate and the technological advances in the fertility and procreation are discussed in the article in detail. In light of the current technological development the in vitro gametogenesis seems to be the most viable option that will lead to the birth of a healthy child without any impairment that can be preventable by the use of the technology. This is moral dilemma so there can be no pressure or regulation but it is pointed out in the article that many couples already practice it because of either health issues like rubella or financial wellbeing. The point of the article is the present the possibilities of the people having the option of reproduction at any chosen time. Because of the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis technology, it is possible to judge the possible health of a child after conception. This makes the chance of in vitro gametogenesis a viable solution for preventing future generation from having any impairment in genetic level and reduces birth defect causing health issue and affecting quality of life for the individual conceived.

Ravven, W ( 2017). Future of stem-cell treatments is cloudy; Leading scientist talks about why the march toward new treatments has been slow. The New York Times. Retrieved electronically at!?&_suid=1509934709784010765267508252485

This article focuses on the possibility of human reproduction which has been successfully carried out in mice where the stem cells generated from cell samples collected from body has been successfully turned into viable gametes. The social aspect of the possibility and its wide spread application possibility is explored as the technology outlines would allow single people to have a biological child and the same is true for same sex couples whose child will have genetic material from both parents regardless of their sex. Therefore, the need for another individual or their genetic material to reproduce would be unnecessary. The possibility is bound to have much greater impact and encompass more of the population than other available technological option for reproduction. However further questions that arise are related to the natal selection and the article does not discuss the suitability of the in vitro fertilization in pre natal selection. This also points out toward the fact that whether the birth of a healthy baby along with the possible expense and complexity can lead to problems or not?

Rosengarten, J ( 2017). Unable To Conceive?; Know your options. National Post. Retrieved electronically at!?&_suid=1509936265651008528860671443028
In this article, the author discusses the possibilities of the moral and ethical dilemma regarding the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) that will allow in future for development of viable gametes from cells from any part of the body. The technology while allowing for infertile couples to have babies also has the possibility of human genome enhancement to practically pick and choose through the possible combination through several generations in laboratory and produce a baby as per specifications. Thus the resistance to technology along with enthusiasm is explored and a cause effect basis which makes the understanding of the shortcomings and benefits of the process better.  The possibility of single mothers without viable eggs or same sex couples to have children opens a new direction in empowerment. The author also highlights "Pre-implantation genetic screening -in contrast to diagnosis -for abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy)” which is considered as a common cause of miscarriages. However, the author uses the article to point out the possible negative aspects of the technological development and thus helps the base of any regulatory guideline though speculation and argument. 

No comments:

Post a Comment

Powered by Blogger.
Have questions? Connect with us on WhatsApp
Hello! How may I assist you? ...
Click to start chatting...