Annotated Bibliography: Racial Profiling: APA Style

Banks, R. R. (2003). Racial profiling and antiterrorism efforts. Cornell L. Rev., 89, 1201.
According to Banks (2003) the crimes against entire communities for the actions of a few are focused upon and the use of the racial profiling in the antiterrorism efforts where the Muslims are put under a higher level of scrutiny is the main topic of discussion of the article. The use of the racial profiling for the antiterrorism actions of the government and their use of heavy handed tactics against specific communities influencing racial hate crimes and instigation of violence against the specific communities is discussed in details and how the racial profiling used to stop terrorism is affecting the mentality of the populace towards the Islamic communities are the main topic of the discussion.
Alsultany, E. (2012). Arabs and Muslims in the Media: Race and Representation after 9/11. nyu Press.
This book discusses the race and representation in the media after the 9/11 attacks and the vilification of the Islamic communities in western countries especially the states who were the harshest in their scrutiny of the Islamic citizens. This book discusses the long standing effect on the Islamic citizens and the unjust actions of the government violating their civil rights in the country. The role of media and the representation of the Middle Eastern populations as villains and the impact on the racial identification of the Muslims were the main topic of the paper. The book discussed the long term effect on the general populace on their formation of the racial identifiers that classify all Muslims as potential terrorists and treat them accordingly is discussed and scope of the problem defined.

Akram, S. M., & Johnson, K. R. (2001). Race, civil rights, and immigration law after September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims. NYU Ann. Surv. Am. L., 58, 295.
This article discussed the aftermath of the 9/ 11 incident of Islamic terrorism and the subsequent changes in the civil rights and immigration law that puts Muslims under much stricter scrutiny is discussed along with its effects on the social standings of the resident Muslim population in the country. The Arabs and Muslims and their segregation from other communities of different religious faiths are discussed along with the social impact of the Islamic people being restricted and viewed with suspicion.
Alsultany, E. (2008). The prime time plight of the Arab Muslim American after 9/11. Race and Arab Americans before and after, 9(11), 204-228.
The different ways the Arabs and Muslims were being segregated from the rest of the population in the United States is the main topic of the article. It discussed how the segregation and preferential treatment against the Arab Muslims were used to isolate them and affect their civil liberties. Therefore, the change in the way the race of Arabs and the religion of Muslims are viewed is discussed in the light of the 9/11 incident and the diofferences are discussed and examined for their long term effects on the society.
Khan, MuqtedarAuthor InformationView Profile. The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs; WashingtonXX.8 (Nov 30, 2001): 66.(Islam in America: U.S. Under Attack; Implications for Muslims Everywhere)
Muqtedar khan in his contribution to the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs stated the obvious impact on the American mentality towards the Middle Eastern people and the resident Muslims of the USA that has been changing with the rise of the Islamic terrorism. He focused on the escalating situation in the Middle East and the impact of said incidents on the psyche of average American citizen to synonymise Muslim or the religion of Islam with terrorism or Jihad. He in this report explained the mentality towards the American Muslim residents and the gradual change in the tolerance towards the Islam and the followers escalating into outright hostility and segregation. The hate crimes against the Muslims are on the rise and the innocent bystanders are being ostracised for the actions of a few so called Jihadists. Therefore, the impact of the Islamic terrorism and middle eastern resistance of the American interference is discussed in detail with the repercussions falling on the US resident Muslim communities.
Cochrane, Joe. Newsweek, International ed.; New York (Oct 28, 2002): 94.
(I'I Will Fight The Best I Can)
The current article explores that the   Indonesian election is focused on this report and the insistence of the Indonesian presidential candidate is based on the anti corruption law being the most important step for any government to take for any country in the future. The candidate focuses on the global issues and Indonesia’s high Muslim population and the US role in defining the global view of the candidate’s opinion is focused on as his military training in USA had a huge impact on his world view. Therefore, the corruption that is holding back the country from developing and a world power is being addressed in this report where the economic discrepancies are promised by the candidate as one of the first things to be enforces in his agenda.
Richards, A., & Omidvar, I. (2014). Muslims and American popular culture. Praeger. and American Popular Culture)
In this book the Islamic terrorism and its impact on the ostracising of the Muslim population of the US are being discussed as the terrorist activities are resulting in a racial hate and discrimination on Muslims who are essentially awarded the same rights as any other community in the states. Therefore, the illegal action enforced on the Muslim population is affecting their rights as citizens of the United States. The violation of the civil rights of the Muslims living in the US And hate crimes and discrimination against the whole community is discussed as how the Muslims are being subjected to hate crimes and discrimination on all parts of the society. Therefore the American culture which is unique because of the immigrant population of USA who outnumber the natives tenfold is being changes to a partiality which has not been part of their culture since conception.
Kondrasuk, J. N. (2005). A US view of terrorism. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 14(5), 644-656.
This report is based on the crimes against the Muslim population in the US and the rise in racial and hate crimes against Muslim communities. The internal conflict and the long term effect of the difference of views are based on the change in perception and social exclusion that goes against the American principle and can be disastrous for a country where most of the population are immigrants. Therefore, the imminent disaster that can rise from the hate crimes and the start of an internal conflict with the potential to splinter the country and affect its political power is the main topic of discussion. This threat and the imminent threat of terrorist activities against civilians that is escalating the concern of the citizens who need to reassure about their safety and that of their community are addressed. This part of the report considers the possible ways to manage the situation and handle it so the effect of it is minimal for the citizens is the discussion that is being addressed in the report.
Onwudiwe, I. (2005). Defining terrorism, racial profiling and the demonisation of Arabs and Muslims in the USA. Safer Communities, 4(2), 4-11.
In this journal article, the focus of the author lies in not the cause of the racial hate crimes rising in the USA but their prevention on a community wise basis. The demonization of the Muslims and the Arabs is a common phenomenon in the US where the blame of the jihadist attacks are being blamed on the Muslim community and the repercussion is translated in the victimization of the members of the community even if they are not responsible for any way for the crimes against humanity that are caused by terrorists. Especially the Middle Eastern terrorist groups and their attacks in their frequency and viciousness are the most responsible the rise in anti Muslim sentiment in the US. Therefore the awareness issues and the vilification of the Islamic communities is a cause for concern and the racial profiling that determines the terrorism and threat to humanity by religion and not the acts of terrorism is a dangerous way to great unrest.

Shora, K. A. R. E. E. M., & Edgar, T. I. M. O. T. H. Y. (2003). After 9/11, an assault on civil liberties. TRIAL, 39(10), 56-61.
In this report, the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks are discussed and the long standing effect on the restrictions on the Muslim population and the hindrance of their civil rights is discussed in detail. Just the fact that eh Islamic and Middle Eastern people conducted the act of terrorism is not reason to vilify an entire community for the crimes of a few. However, the effect of the restriction on the public sentiment of vilifying the Islamic communities and their long standing effect on the perception of the Muslim communities and their treatment of the community that is influenced by civil rights and how that can affect the country as a whole and destroy the national solidarity is discussed in the article.

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